Carmine Lilo Galante – the cigar

He was as vicious as the Mafia boss Vito Genovese, as ambitious as Vito Genovese, and as deeply involved in the heroin business as Vito Genovese. However, Caranto “The Purata” Gallant would not die of natural causes, as Vito Genovese did (though in prison). Instead, Galante was killed in one of the most memorable hit mafias of all time. After his body was filled with lead, he lay spread on his back in the small patio of a restaurant in Queens, his cigar brand tightly clenched between his teeth.
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Camilo Galante was born on February 21, 1910, at 27 Stanton Street in the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Since both his parents, Vincenzo, the fisherman, and his wife (maiden name Vingenza Russo) were born in the seaside village of Castellammarese del Golfo in Sicily, Galante is a pure first generation Sicilian / American. Galante had two brothers and two sisters, and when he was at school, Galante dropped his name Camilo and insisted on his name being Carmine. Over the years he was shortened to Lilo, which was the name most of his associates called Galante.
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Galante first became involved in petty shoplifting when he was fourteen. But since he was a minor at the time, no record of that arrest is on his official police file.
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At various times, Galante attended Public Schools 79 and 120, but dropped out of school forever at the age of fifteen. Galante has been in and out of the Reform School several times and has been considered an “irreparable delinquent”.
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From 1923 to 1926 Galante was employed by the Artificial Flowers Company in Lubin at 270 West Broadway. However, this was wrong to satisfy the law that Galante was hired when in fact he was engaged in a very lucrative criminal career.
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In December 1925, Galante was arrested for assault. However, the money changed hands between the people of Galante and the crooked cops, and as a result Galante was released without any prison time. In December 1926, Galante was arrested again, but this time he was found guilty of second-degree assault and robbery and sentenced to two to five years in prison. Galante was released from prison in 1930 and, in order to satisfy his parole officer, he received another alleged “job” at the O & # 39; Brien Fish Company at 105 South Street, near Fulton Fish Market.
However, the nature of Galante was not to be kept to the right of the law. On March 15, 1930, five men entered the Martin Weinstein Shoe Factory at the corner of York and Washington Streets in Brooklyn Heights. On the 6th floor of the building, Mr. Weinstein was in the process of collecting his weekly records under the protection of Police Officer Walter De Castilla of the 84th Precinct. The five men took the elevator to the 6th floor. As one man stood guard in the elevator, the other four men stormed Mr. Weinstein’s office. They ignored $ 7,500 sitting at a table and opened fire on Officer De Castilla, a young girl’s married father, with nine years in force. Officer De Castilla was punched six times in the chest and died instantly.

The four men made their way quietly back to the elevator and joined their cohort guarding elevator operator Louis Sella. Stella took down the five men to the ground floor. He later told police that the men had left the building, quietly walked to a parked car, got into the car and fled the scene. When police arrived minutes after the station house, just 2 blocks away, the killers were nowhere to be seen. Villages described the five men as “in their early to mid-twenties, with dark skin and dark hair.” Selah said all the men were “very well dressed.”

The police theory was that since no money had been taken, this was a planned blow to Officer De Castilla. On August 30, 1930, Galante, along with Michael Consolo and Angelo Presincano, were arrested and charged with the murder of Officer De Castilla. However, all four men were soon released due to lack of evidence.

On December 25, 1930, four suspicious men were sitting in a green sedan on Briggs Avenue in Brooklyn. Police Detective Joseph Minahan just happened to be in the area. He spotted the men in the sedan, pulled out his gun and carefully approached the sedan. One of the men shouted to Meinahan, “Stop the honey there, or we will burn you.”

Before Meenahan responded, the shooting started from the green sedan. Minahan was shot in the leg, and a six-year-old girl walking with her mother was seriously injured. The driver of the sedan had trouble starting the car, so the four men jumped out of the sedan and tried to escape on foot. Three of the men fled the area by jumping on a passing truck, but the fourth man slipped when he tried to get on the truck and was detained by the injured Manahan. This man was Carmine Gallant.

When Meinahan took Galante to the station house, a group of detectives, angry that one of them had been injured, began giving Galante a “police station” setting. Despite receiving lumps, Galante refused to relinquish the identity of the escaped men. He was subsequently tried and convicted as one of four men who robbed a Lieberman brewery in Brooklyn. On January 8, 1931, Galante was detained at the Singh Sing Prison in Osingne, New York. He was later transferred to the Clinton Correctional Facility in Danemora, New York, where he remained until his release on May 1, 1939.

While Galante was in prison, he was given an IQ test which revealed that he had an IQ of only 90, which, although Galante was well into his twenties, equaled his mental age of 14. It was also noted that Galante was diagnosed as a “neuropathic psychopathic person”. A physical assessment showed that he sustained a head injury sustained in a car accident when Galante was 10 years old, with an ankle fracture when he was eleven years old, and that Galante showed early signs of gonorrhea, possibly occurring in one of the many mafia-controlled messes.

In 1939, after being released from prison, Galante again got the awkward job of his old job at the Lublin Artificial Flower Company. In February 1941, Galante became a member of Local 856 of the Longshorman Union, where he apparently worked as a stevedore. However, it is likely that Galante very rarely shows up for work; one of the perks of being a member of the mafia.

The exact date is unknown, but Galante was introduced as a member of the Bonano crime family in the early 1940s. Despite the fact that his boss is Joe Bonano, at that time the youngest Mafia boss in America, Galante made many hits for Vito Genovese, all in their 30s and 40s.

While Genovese was in self-imposed exile in Italy (he was wanted on a murder charge and flew to the party before he could be arrested), Genovese became fast friends with the Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Mussolini had a stone in his shoe in America called Carlo Treza. Tressa provoked a great deal of agitation by Mussolini, constantly writing anti-fascist sentiment in his radical Italian language, the Il Martello newspaper, which was sold in Italian communities in America.

Genovese sent a message back to America to Frank Garofalo, Lieutenant General Joseph Bonano, saying that Tresa had to go. Garofalo contracted with Tresa to Galante, who overshadowed Tresa for a few days to determine the best time and place to hit him.

On January 11, 1943, Treza was walking along Fifth Avenue near 13th Street when a black Ford sedan pulled past him. The Ford stopped and Galante jumped out with a hot gun in his hand. Galante blasted Tress several times in the back and in the head, killing the newspaper editor instantly. It is amazing that Galante was seen by his release officer fleeing the scene of the accident, but because of the military norms of gasoline, the parole officer failed to follow the black Ford containing Galante and the smoking weapon. There has never been an arrest for Teresa’s murder.

In 1953, Bonano sent Galante to Montreal, Canada, to take control of the interests of the Bonano family north of the border. In addition to the very lucrative Canadian gambling rockets, Bonannos were heavy in importing heroin, from France to Canada, and then to America, the notorious French connection. Galante has been managing the Canadian drug operation for three years. But in 1956, Canadian police came across Galante’s involvement. Not having enough evidence to arrest Galante, they instead deport Galante to America, classifying Galante as “unwanted extraterrestrial.”

In 1957, Genovese called for a summit of all the highest-ranking Mafioso in America to be held at the upper New York residence of Apolachin by Joseph Barbara, a captain in the family of the buffalo crimes of Stefano Magadino. In preparation for this meeting, on October 19, 1956, a number of major crimes in New York State were called in to overcome the directions of the proposed meeting; the main purpose of which was to anoint Genovese as Capo di Tutti Capi or Boss of All Bosses.

After the meeting ended, driving back to New York, Galante was caught speeding near Birmingham, New York. As his driver’s license was terminated, Galante handed the phone to police. He was immediately arrested and sentenced to 30 days in prison. The Mafia’s tentacles, however, reached the New York State Police Department. After several New York attorneys made the right phone calls in the state of New York with motivated calls, Galante was released within 48 hours. Still, a state trooper by the name of Sergeant Edgar Roswell took note of the fact that Galante had admitted to police that he had spent the night last night at the Arlington Hotel, hosting a local businessman named Joseph Barbara. This prompted Roswell to pay particular attention to Barbara’s residence in Apalachin, New York.

Less than a month later, on November 17, 1957, at the insistence of Don Vito Genovese, mafia members from across America made their way to the Barbara residence. These men included Sam Giancana of Chicago, Santo Trafante of Florida, John Scalish of Cleveland and Joe Profaci and Tommy Luchese of New York. Galante boss Joe Bonano decided not to attend, and he sent for him.

Sergeant Roswell became aware of the fact that the day before the nearby Arlington Hotel had been booked for lifts with suspicious outside tugboats. Roswell asked the right questions, and he was able to confirm that the man who made the reservations for these men was Joseph Barbara himself. Roswell walked over to Barbara’s resident, and he noticed dozens of luxury cars parked outside, some with signs outside the city.

Roswell called for support, and within minutes, dozens of state troopers arrived with their rifles drawn. The corpses attacked Barbara’s residence and chaos ensued. Men wearing expensive suits, hats and shoes attached to the house. Some were immediately arrested; some got to their cars and left the property before obstacles were erected by police. Others jumped out of the windows and clung to the thorny forest. One of these men was Carmine Galante, who hid in a cornfield until police left Barbara’s residence. He then returned to Barbara’s home and arranged for his safe passage back to New York.

The next day, when the news of the attack on Barbara’s house hit American newspapers, blowing the lid on the delusional idea that the mafia was a myth, Galante went into the wind or, in a Mafia plan, he “pulled out a Lamia.” On January 8, 1958, the New York Herald Tribune wrote that Galante had escaped to Italy to hang out with old friend Salvatore “Lucky” Luciano, who had been in exile in Italy after serving nine years in an American prison for trumped-up prostitution charging. Another report says that it was not Luciano Galante, but rather Joe “Adonis” Doto, another exiled Mafia boss in Italy. On January 9, an American from the New York Magazine stated that Galante was not in Italy at all, but in Havana, Cuba, with Meyer Lansky, a longtime member of the National Crime Commission, who has numerous interests in casinos in Cuba.

In April 1958, somehow it expired that Galante was already back in the United States and living somewhere in the New York area. Local law went into operation and in July Galante was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics while driving near Holmdale, New Jersey. He was accused of engaging in a major heroin deal involving one of Galante’s many. Vito Genovese, John Ormento, Joe Di Palermo and Vincent Gigante were arrested in the same case. Galante, again using his cadre of New York attorneys, was released on $ 100,000 bail. Galante’s attorneys were able to delay any further court proceedings by almost two years. It was not until May 17, 1960 that Galante was formally charged and again released on bail.

On January 20, 1961, Galante’s trial finally began and Judge Thomas F. Murphy overturned Galante’s bail by ordering Galante to be imprisoned. However, Galante’s luck lingered when a manifesto was announced on May 15. It appeared that the jury foreman, a poor chief named Harry Apel, a 68-year-old clothing maker, had the misfortune to fall down the stairs in a 15th Street building in Manhattan. After the medics arrived and Apel was taken to a nearby hospital, Apel was found to have received a broken back. No one had seen Apel fall, nor did the injured and frightened Apel say he had hit him. Although they have no clear evidence, law enforcement officials believe Apel was pushed out of the cohort by Galante with a warning not to say anything to anyone and they would allow Apel and his family members to live.

Galante, now alive and well, was released from jail on $ 135,000 bond.

Alas, but all good things must be done.

In April 1962, Galante’s second trial began.

During the trial, there was some chaos in the courtroom when one of Galante’s co-defendants, a nasty creature named Tony Mira (who is said to have killed 30-40 people), became so unobtrusive that he lifted a chair and threw it at the prosecutor. Fortunately for the prosecutor, the chairman missed it and landed in the jury box, forcing scared jurors to scatter in all directions. The order was restored in court and the process continued, which was bad news for both Galante and Mira. Both men were found guilty and on July 10, 1962 Galante was sentenced to thirty years in prison. Mira was also sent to prison for a very long time. It is unclear whether extra time has been awarded to Mira’s sentence for the chair-throwing incident.

Galante was first sent to Alcatraz Prison, located on an island fortress in San Francisco Bay. He was then transferred to a Lewisburg penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, before serving his final years in prison at the United States Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia. Finally Galante was released from prison on January 24, 1974, full of fire and brimstone, and ready to go to work. However, Galante should be released by 1981, so he must be careful not to maintain a high profile. Unfortunately, being in the background was not in Galante’s makeup.

While in prison, Galante made it clear that when he got out of prison, he would take control of the New York Mafia by the throat. The adopted head of the five mafia families in New York at the time was Carlo Gambino, head of the Gambino crime family. Gambino was shrewd and generally quiet and reserved; well respected for his business sense and his ability to keep peace among his own family, as well as other mafia families. However, Galante had to use Gambino or his method of doing business.

At the time of Galante’s release, his boss Joe Bonano was forced to “retire” and live in Tucson, Arizona. Bonano’s new boss was Rusty Rastelli. But since Rastelli was in a slap at the time, Galante took on the role of Bonanos’ “street boss”. Still, Rastelli was considered to be the head of the Bonanos, and he wasn’t happy about Galante sticking his things out on the streets of New York.

Galante took the unusual step and was not appreciated by other members of the Bonano crime family, surrounding himself with Sicily-born Mafioso like Caesar Bonventre, Salvatore Catalano and Baldo Amato. These men were derisively called “zippers” by the American mafia because of the swift manner in which they passed through the Italian language. Тези ципове бяха силно замесени в търговията с наркотици и в пряка опозиция с онези от семейството на престъпленията в Генувезе, което беше управлявано от Фунци Тиери, всеки малко по-хитър и порочен като Галанте.

Галанте имаше лек неуспех, когато през 1978 г. той бе арестуван от федералите за “свързване с известни престъпници”, което беше нарушение на неговата условно освобождаване. Докато Галанте се задушава в затвора, той заповядва на хората си да убиват мафиоти в семействата на престъпления в Геновезе и Гамбино, които участват в световната операция на наркотиците в Галанте. С Карло Гамбино, който вече е мъртъв (от естествени причини), Галанте прецени, че има мускулите да изтласка другите фонове на семейството на престъпността на заден план. От затвора той изпрати съобщението до другите шефове: “Кой от вас ще се изправи срещу мен?”

На 1 март 1979 г. Галанте е освободен от затвора и ходи по ефир, защото наистина вярваше, че другите престъпни босове се страхуват от него. Подобно на Вито Дженовезе преди него, Галанте се представяше за „шеф на всички босове“ и беше само въпрос на време другите шефове да се спуснат пред Галанте и да му връчат титлата.

Галант обаче подценяваше силата и волята на другите шефове на Мафиозо в Ню Йорк. Докато Галанте се разхождаше по улиците на Ню Йорк, другите шефове проведоха среща в Бока Ратон, Флорида, за да решат съдбата на Галанте. На тази среща присъстваха Фунци Тиери, Джери Катена, Пол Кастелано и шефът на Флорида Санто Трафанте. Тези мощни мъже гласуваха единодушно, ако трябва да има мир на мафията по улиците на Ню Йорк, Галанте трябваше да отиде. Растели, който все още беше в затвора, беше консултиран и дори възрастният Джо Бонано, живеещ в Аризона, беше попитан дали има резерви към бившия си близък сътрудник. И Растели, и Бонано подписаха договора за убийство на Галанте, а дните на Галанте бяха преброени.

На 12 юли 1979 г. беше горещ и лепкав летен ден, когато 69-годишната Карлин Галанте Линкълн се изтегли на 205 Knickerbocker Avenue, в участъка Бушвик в Бруклин. Повече от 50 години Авеню на Knickerbocker беше тревата на семейството на престъпления в Бонано и през годините се проведоха многобройни посегателства в една от няколкото витрини на блока.

Кармин Галант излезе от Линкълн, след което махна сбогом на шофьора: неговия племенник Джеймс Галанте. Кармин Галанте беше облечена в бяла плетена риза с къс ръкав и, както беше по негов обичай, смучеше огромна пура на Чърчил. Галанте се втурна вътре в мъничкия ресторант и бе приветстван от Джо Турано, собственика на Джо и ресторант Мери. Галанте бе направил това посещение, за да се срещне с Турано и с Леонард „Нардо“ Копола, близък сътрудник на Галанте, за някои неопределени бизнес мафиоти.

Приблизително в 1:30 ч. Капола влезе в ресторанта, придружен от ципове Балдо Амато и Чезаре Бонвентре, които бяха братовчеди, и от същото село с родителите на Галанте: Castellammarese del Golfo. По това време Галанте и Турано вече бяха приключили с яденето си, така че, докато тримата новодошли седяха вътре и обядваха, Галанте и Турано се измъкнаха навътре във вътрешния двор и седнаха под чадър с жълто-тюркоаз. След като Капола, Бонвентре и Амато приключиха с вечерята, те се присъединиха към другите двама мъже отвън. Галанте и Турано пушеха пури и пиеха еспресо кафе, изпъстрено с Анисета (само туристи и неиталианци пият Самбука).

Галанте седеше с гръб към малка градина, докато Амато седеше отляво, а Бонвентре отдясно. Турано и Капола седяха от другата страна на масата с гръб към вратата, която водеше към ресторанта.

Около 14:40 ч. Синьо Mercury Montego двойно паркира пред Джо и Ресторант Мери. Колата е била открадната преди около месец. Шофьорът, облечен в червена райета ски маска, която покриваше лицето му, излезе от колата и застана нащрек, държейки в ръцете си заплашително карабина M.3030 M1. Други трима мъже, също носещи ски маски, скочиха от колата и се впуснаха в ресторанта. Преминаха покрай няколкото стреснати вечери, които все още ядеха обяда, и се втурнаха в зоната на вътрешния двор.

Когато влязоха във вътрешния двор, един маскиран мъж каза на другия: „Вземете го, Сал!“

Стрелецът, наречен „Сал“, започна няколко пъти да стреля с двуколесна пушка по Галанте, като задвижваше Галанте, докато се издигаше от стола, на гърба си. Галанте беше ударен с 30 пелети, като единият му изби лявото око. Галанте вероятно беше мъртъв, преди да удари земята, пурата му все още се заби плътно между зъбите.

Докато Галанте беше застрелян, Джо Турано извика: “Какво правиш?”

Същият стрелец се обърна към Турано и с пушката, притисната към гърдите на Турано, взриви Турано във вечността.

Капола скочи от масата или Амато, или Бонвентре (не е ясно кой е стрелял) застреля Капола в лицето, а след това пет пъти в гърдите. Капола кацна с лицето надолу, а убиецът с пушката се удари от гърба на главата на Копола.

След това тримата маскирани мъже изтичаха от ресторанта и влязоха в чакащата кола за бягство. Според свидетели пред ресторанта колата се е качила на авеню Knickerbocker до Flushing Avenue, след което изчезнала зад ъгъла. Бонвентре и Амато, които носеха кожени якета въпреки задушаващата жега, скоро последваха тримата артилеристи от ресторанта. Те спокойно тръгнаха надолу по блока, влязоха в син Линкълн и потеглиха, сякаш бяха полагали грижи по света.

Тялото на Галанте беше положено в погребалния дом в Провансано-Ланза на 43 Второ авеню от Долната Източна страна. Тълпите, които обикновено придружават мафиотски събуждания от този вид, по-специално липсваха. Галанте е погребан на 17 юли на гробището Сейнт Джон в Куинс. По време на броенето федералите само 59 души присъстваха на погребалната маса и погребението на Галанте. Федерите съобщиха също, че нито един мъж, накарал мафията, е бил заловен на камери за наблюдение, нито след събуждането, нито на погребението.

Един Фед, коментирайки оскъдната избирателна активност, каза: “Галанте беше толкова лош, хората не искаха да го виждат, дори когато беше мъртъв.”

Въпреки че вестниците изиграха убийството със страховити снимки на първа страница, широката общественост изглеждаше неприлична по отношение на мащаба на събитието. Младо момче се приближи до полицай, който стоеше охраняващ будката.

“Актьор ли беше?” – каза детето на ченгето.

Полицаят отговорил: „Не, той беше гангстер“.


Mafioti – Carlo Gambino

He was a quiet man who dressed unnoticed and knew that he never lost his composure. But no doubt, Carlo Gambino, with his huge hawk nose and mysterious smile, was one of the most powerful Mafia bosses of all time.

Gambino was born in Palermo, Sicily on August 24, 1902. The area of ​​Palermo, called Kakamo, in which Gambino grew up, had such an intense presence of the mafia, the police, and even the military were afraid to invade it. This left the mafia running the area with impunity, knowing what they would do would not be reported to the police if the police were even interested in what happened there in the first place.

Carlo's mother's girlfriend was Castellano, and she used her influence with her family, who were Mafiosos, to introduce Gambino to Men of Respect when Gambino was just a teenager. Gambino, which was lightly built and only 5-foot-7, quietly impressed its superiors with its serenity, intelligence and ability to do what it needed to do, even if it meant killing someone who had to be killed.

In 1921, just before his twentieth birthday, Gambino was rewarded for his good deed by being introduced to the Mafia, or what was known in Italy as the "Honored Society". However, because of Benito's Mussolini vendetta against the Mafia (Mussolini arrested many mafias, including top mafia boss Don Vito Casio Ferro, who was sentenced to life in prison), many mafias, including Gambino, decided that Sicily was too dangerous for they exist the way they used to. As a result, there was a huge outpouring of Mafioso to this golden mountain across the Atlantic called America.

In late 1921, Gambino left Sicily on an SS Vincenzo Florio truck heading for America. Throughout the voyage, Gambino recreated nothing but wine and anchovies, which except olive oil were the only nutrients on board.

On December 23, 1921, SS Vincenzo Florio docked in Norfolk, Virginia, and Gambino was deactivated as an illegal immigrant. Dressed in a natural three-piece suit and black Fedora, Gambino walked up the gangplank, searching for a car, and was told that when he left for Palermo, he would wait for him when he was calling to America, with flashing lights at the end of the dock. He noticed the car and when he arrived in it, Gambino saw Castellano's cousin sitting behind the wheel. They hugged each other and headed to New York in seconds.

When Gambino arrived in New York, he was pleased to discover that his cousins ​​Castellano had already rented an apartment on Navy Street in Brooklyn, near the shore. They also put Gambino to work for a transportation company owned by his first cousins ​​Peter and Paul Castellano. Soon Gambino became involved in the illegal bootlegger business run by his Palermo partner Tommy Luchese. The ban was created with the passage of the Volstead Act in 1919, which prohibits the production, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages, but not consumption. In practice, something led to another, and soon Gambino was the main gear crew of Joe "Chief" Maseria, the most powerful mafia in America.

However, another Mafioso escaped Mussolini's anger and arrived in America in the mid-20s. His name was Salvatore Marantzano, second in command of don Vito Casio Ferro in Sicily. Maranzano estimated that the Sicilian Mafioso was far superior to the one in America, so it was natural for him to become the top mafia boss in America. This did not affect Masseria well and the result was the Castellammarese war that flooded the streets of New York with many dead bodies from 1929-31.

Maseria's crew soon joined top mafia men such as Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, Albert Anastasia and Vito Genovese, who were well connected with Jewish gangsters Mayer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel. However, since Maseria did not like his people doing business with non-Sicilians (Costello, real name Castile, was from Calabria), Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese were hoping for their time, hoping that maybe Maseria, and Marantzano will knock each other off so that younger men can take control of all their operations.

However, it was Gambino who made the first move to remedy this situation. Sensing that he was on the losing side of the battle, Gambino secretly approached Marantzano and offered to jump on Marantzano's side. Maranzano readily agreed, and soon Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese also want to join Maranzano's forces. Marantzano accepted their offer, provided they depart from Maseria once and for all. This task was accomplished on April 15, 1931, when Luciano lured Maseria to the Nuova Villa Tammaro restaurant on Coney Island. While Luciano was taking a break in the bathroom, Siegel, Genovese, Anastasia and the Jewish murderer Red Levin burst through the front door and filled Maseria with lead, which made him quite dead and put an end to the Castelamarez War.

Marantzano immediately called for a meeting of all the top mafioso in the city (reportedly over 500 men) at a warehouse in the Bronx. At this meeting Marantzano said, "Whatever happened in the past is over. There will be no more hatred between us. Those who lost someone in the war must be forgiven and forgotten."

Maranzano then began to form five families, each with a boss and a villain. Under the two senior men, each family would have capiregimes or captains who would rule the rest of the family: sellatos or soldiers. The five bosses were Joe Bonano, Joe Profaci, Lucky Luciano, Tommy Luchese and Vincent Mangano. Albert Anastasia became a Mangano Fit, and Carlo Gambino became a Captain in the Mangano Family. Of course, Marantzano became the "boss of all bosses" (Capo Di Tutti Capi), which did not sit well with the rest of the young mafia.

Despite all the fairy tales of "no more hatred between us," Marantzano had a secret plan to kill Luciano, Genovese, and Costello – men whom Marantzano thought was ambitious and a threat to his rule. Maranzano called on the vicious Irish killer Vincent Crazy Dog Cole to eliminate his perceived competition. Marantzano paid Cole $ 25,000 on the spot, with another $ 25,000 still pending when the dirty work was done. To place the trap, Marzantano invited Luciano, Genovese and Costello to his office in Manhattan, Middletown.

However, Luciano caught the wind of the conspiracy through an informant close to Maranzano, who is believed to be Tommy Luchese. Instead of reporting to Marzano's office, Luciano sent four Jewish murderers to a proposed meeting led by Red Levin, one of the men who rejected Masseria. The four men posing as detectives bulldozed their way past Maranzano's bodyguards in the outer cabinet. Then they blew up at Marzano's office, where he was stabbed and shot to death. As they left the building, the four killers collided with Cole's "Crazy Dog". They told him not to worry – Marantzano was dead and police were on their way. Cole got his face whistling a happy tune, making $ 25,000 in salary without firing a single shot.

Luciano soon called the bosses of the other four mafia families and told them that the title "boss of all bosses" had been eliminated by Marzano. Luciano then formed a National Crime Commission, comprising Jewish mobsters Mayer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel and Holland Schulz.

Gambino, now firmly established as a captain in the Mangano family, has become the largest money maker in the entire New York mafia. And in the Mafia, money carries prestige.

In 1932, his pockets burst with money, Gambino married his first cousin, Catherine Castellano Carlo, and Catherine Gambino, eventually raising three sons and a daughter. (Marriage to first cousins ​​is common in Italy and not frowned upon in the United States as it is today. In fact, marriage to first cousins ​​is already illegal in most, but not all, states. Editors note: My paternal grandparents my countries are the first cousins ​​married in Sicily in the early 1900s)

When the ban was lifted in 1933, Gambino was already ready to make money from the now-legitimate buoyancy business, but he did it illegally. While the ban thrived on illegal sales to the mafia, Gambino planned the days when he knew the ban would end. To achieve his goals, Gambino took out as many illegal photographs as possible; in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and even as far as Maryland. When the ban ended and the price of alcohol blew through the roof, Gambino had the largest illegal alcohol distribution system on America's east coast. And since he was making the drink himself and paying no government taxes, Gambino could be undercutting legitimate distributors, making himself and the Mangano family a small fortune in the mid to late 1930s.

The start of World War II gave Gambino another opportunity to win even more illegal money through his war-time rockets. With the inevitable war against Germany and Japan, on August 28, 1941, the United States Government established the Office of Price Management (OPA), which is tasked with printing and distributing ration stamps to the American public. Without these seals, people would not be able to buy gasoline, tires, shoes, nylon, sugar, fuel oil, coffee, meat and processed foods. Gambino figured out that the only way he could get the hands of women's brands to sell on the black market was to steal them straight.

Gambino sent his best second-floor crackers and men to the vaults of the Office of Price Management and they came up with hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of steel stamps. When some low-level OPA employees realized that the brands were being stolen by the mafia, they decided to bargain by stealing the ration stamps themselves and selling them to Gambino and his boys, at a bargain price, of course. . Gambino figured out why he risked stealing the ration's brands with the opportunity to catch himself. So he took the suggestion of the crooked OPA staff and started buying stamps of their rations.

The beauty of this scheme was that Gambino already had a ready distribution network: its network of illicit alcohol distributors. In October 1963, Mafia informant Joe Valachi testified to the Investigative Subcommittee on Government Operations of the Arkansas Sector, John L. McCellon, that with just one rationing deal, Gambino made over $ 1 million in profits.

Being a talented businessman, Gambino knew he couldn't live the high life without reporting significant revenue to the government. Thus, Gambino invests the money he makes from his illegal operations, valued at several million dollars, in legal businesses such as meat markets, pizzerias, olive and cheese importers, mapping companies, clothing factories, bakeries and restaurants.

By 1951, the Mangano family, thanks to Gambino's incredible ability to generate income, was one of the most prosperous in the Mafia. The problem was that Mangano did not get along with his Anastasia subsystem. Mangano was jealous of Anastasia's closeness to other bosses, such as Frank Costello and Lucky Luciano, who was in exile in Italy; an agreement for a pardon agreement he received from the United States government after serving 9 years in prison on a prostitution charge. Several times Mangano physically attacks Anastasia, a foolish move, as the younger and stronger Anastasia easily beats her boss in the fist.

With rumors that Mangano was planning to kill Anastasia, Anastasia, with the blessing of crime boss Frank Costello, decided to strike first. On April 19, 1951, the body of Phil Mangano, Vincent Mangano's brother, was found in the swamp near Sheep Bay. He was shot five times in the head. When police investigating the murder tried to contact Vincent Mangano about his brother's death, they were unable to trace him. Vincent Mangano's body was never found.

Until days Anastasia sat down with the other bosses and explained that he had killed Mangano before Mangano could kill him. With the support of Costello, Anastasia came across the head of the Mangano family, and the name was changed to the Anastasia family. Anastasia made Frank Scalis and Joe Adonis his underdogs and he gave Capo Carlo Gambino more men and more power in the organization.

However, Anastasia's reign lasted less than seven years. Anastasia was repeatedly banging her head with vicious crime boss Vito Genovese, who sought to take all rackets in New York, even if it meant killing other bosses one by one. Anastasia received a terrible blow when his good-looking Joe Adonis was deported back to Italy as an unwanted foreigner. Anastasia knew that his days were numbered when, in early 1956, Frank Costello was shot in the head by the young hero Vincent "The Brand" Gigante. Costello survives the shooting, and during the Gigante process, Costello, true to the Omeria mafia code, refuses to name Gigante as his attacker.

However, this significantly reduced Costello's power in the Mafia and, at Genovese's insistence, Costello was released as one of the five Mafia Commission chiefs. This left Anastasia without his closest ally and put Anastasia in a vulnerable position. Shortly afterwards, another Anastasia tray, Frank Scalis, was shot while shopping for fruits and vegetables on Arthur Avenue in the Bronx.

The last shoe was dropped when, on October 25, 1957, Anastasia was shot to death while sitting in a barber chair at the Sheridan Park Hotel in Manhattan, Manhattan. With Anastasia already dead, Genovese called for a move with the other bosses and suggested Carlo Gambino, whom he plotted to kill Anastasia, to take Anastasia's family. The commission agreed and they renamed the Gambino family.

The greedy Genovese has called for a meeting of all the criminal bosses, runners-up, captains and respected mafia men in America, to be held in the sleepy city of Appalachian, New York, at the home of Joseph Barbara, the crime family of buffalo criminal boss, Stefano Mag. . There were a few issues on Genovese's agenda, but the primary point was that Genovese would declare itself as "Capo Di Tutti Capi" or "Boss of All Bosses", a title that was blank after Salvatore Maranzano's death.

On November 17, 1957, dozens of mobsters stormed Barbara's home. The group included crime bosses John Skalish, of Cleveland, Sam Giancana of Chicago, Frank Desimone of California, Santo Trafante of Florida, Gerardo Catena and Frank Majuri of New Jersey, as well as Carlo Gambino, Joe Profaci, Tommy Luchese from New York.

Before the celebrations began, however, State Sergeant Edgar Roswell, along with a dozen state troopers, stormed the house. Later, Roswell said he became suspicious when he saw Joseph Barbara Jr. book a hotel for a dozen or so end-of-life people. Roswell said he then traveled to Barbara's residence and saw dozens of luxury cars parked in and around Barbara's estate. Roswell said he called for a heavy backup and when his soldiers arrived, they made a move.

Later, a rumor spread that Meyer Lansky himself, who is not a big fan of Vito Genovese, cut off state troops for the upcoming Mafia convention.

Anyway, when the soldiers storm the house, Mafioso, like in a Chinese fire drill, scattered in all directions. Men in expensive suits were bouncing, though with windows open, and if they couldn't get to their cars, they would take him back on foot through the woods, ruining his patent leather shoes. Sam Giancana escaped safely by running through the woods, and Bonano underestimated Carmine Galente. But both men were porridge; their suits destroyed by thorny bushes. Some cars removed it from the property before a barrier was erected, but most did not. When the dust cleared, 58 mafia members were detained and told to empty their pockets. A total of $ 300,000 in cash was found for the 58 men, making state police even more suspicious of the meeting.

The meeting was characterized by the men who chose not to attend. In addition to Lansky, absent were Frank Costello, Carlo Marcello of New Orleans, and Lansky's friend Joseph "Doc" Stracher.

Of the 58 men detained, 27 were charged with obstruction of justice, 27 of which were convicted of refusing to answer questions about the purpose of the meeting. One of the men convicted was Gambino's cousin Paul Castellano, who had to get out at the end of the year.

Прекъснатата среща, повече от всичко друго, доведе до разпадането на Вито Дженовезе. Той не само, че не получи възвишеното заглавие „шеф на всички босове“, но и се превърна в пария в мафията; присмива се като глупав и алчен да призовава толкова много важни мъже на едно и също място едновременно за собствените му цели.

В деня след нападението вестниците на цялата нация разпространиха истории на първа страница за инцидента. Вече не можеха мъжете на мафията да твърдят, че мафията не съществува. Полицията и директорът на ФБР Дж. Едгар Хувър, който години наред отрича съществуването на мафията, изпаднаха в ярост, оказвайки силен натиск върху операциите на мафията.

Въпреки че в началото Карло Гамбино изглеждаше жертва на обстоятелства, хитрият ветеран на мафията замисли да превърне инцидента в своя полза. Всъщност имаше спекулации, че Гамбино знае за нападението предварително и отиде там нарочно, така че никой няма да го подозира, че е попаднал в предателството; което би имало смисъл в светлината на по-нататъшното развитие.

След като Genovese все още се задушава от загубата на лицето си, Гамбино се сговори с Франк Костело, Майер Лански и Лъки Лучано (все още в изгнание в Италия, но в състояние да се придвижва свободно в Куба, за да се срещне с приятелите си), за да накара Genovese до врата си в многомилионна международна сделка с наркотици. Дори мисълта, че търговията с наркотици е забранена от мафията, алчният Дженовезе не можеше да устои на желанието да направи тон тесто.

Когато дойде моментът, Гамбино съобщи на Бюрото за наркотици относно сделката с наркотиците, което доведе до ареста на Дженовезе. В процеса на Genovese Гамбино плати фалшив свидетел на име Нелсън Кантелопс, който настоя на позицията на свидетелите, че Genovese не е участвал само в тази конкретна сделка с наркотици, но всъщност е участвал в десетки сделки с наркотици през годините. В резултат на това Genovese беше осъден на 15 години затвор. Дженовезе излежава малко повече от десет години от присъдата си, преди да умре в затвора на 14 февруари 1969 г.

Със загиналата Анастасия, Дженовезе в затвора, Лучано в изгнание, Франк Костело в основата на мафиотския контур, Джо Профачи остарява и отслабва, а Джо Бонано има относително малко семейство на престъпления, Карло Гамбино безспорно става най-могъщият шеф на мафията в Америка. Екипажът му от над 500 мъже, излезли на улицата, включваше неговия подцерец Джо Биондо, консилера Джоузеф Рикобоно и капос Арманд "Томи" Рава, Аниело "Мистър Нийл" Делакроче, Пол Кастелано, Кармин "Докторът" Ломбарджици, Йосиф " Джо Пайни "Armone, и Carmine" Wagon Wheels "Fatico.

Гамбино разшири своите предприятия в цяла САЩ. Освен в Ню Йорк, Гамбино имаше пръсти в пота в Чикаго, Лос Анджелис, Маями, Бостън, Сан Франциско и Лас Вегас. Гамбино управлява и мощния Международен съюз за дълги дрехи, който контролира всички докове в Ню Йорк, основното пристанище за внос в Америка.

След като Джо Валачи стана първият известен мафиотски информатор, Гамбино затвърди правилото, забраняващо продажбата на наркотици в екипажа му. Рационалното на Гамбино беше, че наказанията за продажба на наркотици са толкова тежки, че хората могат да се превърнат в плъх, когато бъдат арестувани, вместо да си правят времето в затвора, както правиха истинските мъже от мафията в миналото. Семейната политика на Гамбино беше „Сделка и умиране“ и той прилага това правило без изключения.

Карайки се на върха на мафиотската грамада, Карло Гамбино стана популярна фигура в кварталните улици на Малка Италия в Ню Йорк. Докато другите шефове се барикадираха в именията си, с въоръжена бодигард, охранителна аларма и електрифицирани огради, Гамбино безнаказано обикаляше улиците, спирайки да разговаря със стари приятели, докато им купуваха зеленчуци и плодове от улични продавачи. Гамбино отиде до Ферара на Гранд Стрийт, между Мълбъри и Мот, за сладкиши. Тогава той ще се разходи по блока, за да вземе италианските си меса, сирена и италиански деликатеси от Алева, на ъгъла на Mulberry and Grand.

От март 1970 г. Гамбино започва да има проблеми със закона. Докато той се разхождаше по улица в Бруклин, Гамбино беше заобиколен от полицията в Ню Йорк и членове на ФБР. Арестуваха Гамбино и го обвиниха в овладяване на схема за откраднат пари в размер на 30 милиона долара от бронирана фирма за камиони, разположена в Бронкс. В крайна сметка срещу Гамбино бе повдигнато обвинение, но делото беше прекратено поради липса на доказателства.

Това принуди федерите да изпробват друга тактика, за да извадят Гамбино от улиците. През 1966 г. правителството е издало заповед за депортиране на Гамбино, но по някаква причина заповедта никога не е била изпълнена. В началото на 1971 г., след като съпругата на Гамбино Катрин почина от рак, федерите наистина се опитаха да приложат тази заповед, но като чуха за неговата непосредствена опасност, хитрият Гамбино фалшифицира сериозен сърдечен удар. Федерите бяха ядосани в играта на Гамбино, така че те бяха накарали американската служба за обществено здраве да даде на Гамбино пълна физическа активност. Федесите се разстроиха, когато бе установено, че Гамбино наистина има тежко сърдечно заболяване. Това е потвърдено през 1972 г., когато Гамбино е притиснат от дома си в 2230 Ocean Parkway, в Бруклин, до болницата Columbus в Манхатън с масивен сърдечен удар. Защо болница в Бруклин не е подходяща за Гамбино, никога не беше разкрито.

Докато се възстановяваше вкъщи, Гамбино наруши един от законите, които сам постанови – „Разправи наркотици и умри“. Действащият шеф на генуезците Томас „Томи Райън“ Еболи се обърна към Гамбино с предложение „не може да пропусне“ предложение за посредничество на многомилионна сделка с наркотици с Луис Цивило, считан от федерацията за най-големия търговец на наркотици в Америка. Проблемът беше, че Еболи, бивш мениджър по бокс и известен лош комарджия, нямаше нужните 4 милиона долара, за да продължи операцията. Гамбино изпрати на Еболи 4-те милиона долара, но той загуби всичко, когато федералите арестуваха Цивило и конфискува наркотиците и парите. Когато Гамбино се приближи до Еболи за липсващите му 4 милиона долара, Еболи обърна джобовете си навътре, което показва, че е плосък счупен.

Това не зарадва твърде много Гамбино. В резултат на това около 16:00, на 16 юли 1972 г., Еболи е застрелян пет пъти, докато напуска апартамента на приятелката си в Crown Heights, Бруклин. Еболи умря на място, а Гамбино имаше достатъчно влияние в комисията на мафията, за да нареди неговият близък приятел, капитанът на Дженовезе Франк "Фунзи" Тиери, да бъде новият шеф на семейство Дженовезе. И така беше направено.

Гамбино имаше още един неуспех, когато в началото на 1973 г. 29-годишният му племенник Емануел "Мани" Гамбино беше отвлечен заради откуп. Същата тази банда преди това е отвлякла капитана на семейство Gambino Crime, Франк „Frankie the Wop“ Manzo за 100 000 долара. След като тази сума беше платена за безопасното завръщане на Манцо, бандата стана по-амбициозна при отвличането на Мани Гамбино – този път поиска 200 000 долара. Гамбино се опита да се пазари, като им предложи само 50 000 долара. Скоро след това тялото на Мани Гамбино е намерено в седнало положение на сметище в Ню Джърси в близост до морското боеприпаси на Ърле. На 1 юни 1973 г. изроденият комарджия Робърт Сентер се призна за виновен за убийството и е осъден на петнадесет години затвор. Явно Senter е паднал в дългове към Gambino и е по-лесно да убие Gambino след това да плати дълга.

След смъртта на племенника си усложни агонията от смъртта на съпругата си, Гамбино стана отшелник в къщата си на Ocean Parkway. Заобиколи се с членове на семейството, най-вече братовчед му Пол Кастелано. До 1975 г. беше ясно, че сърдечното състояние на Гамбино няма да му позволи да живее много по-дълго. Така той започнал да планира наследяването си като глава на семейството на престъпността Гамбино. Искайки да запази властта в собствената си фамилна кръв, Гамбино помаза братовчед си Пол Кастелано, за да го наследи.

Това не надмина и останалите Гамбинос, които очакваха дългогодишния Мафиосо Аниело Делакроче да бъде естественият наследник на Гамбино. За да успокои Делакроче, Гамбино му даде всички ракети от Манхатън, контролирани от семейство Гамбино. И това наистина беше голям подарък.

На 15 октомври 1976 г. Карло Гамбино си пое последния дъх, когато сърцето му най-накрая се раздаде. Погребението на Гамбино беше едно от най-сложните, случвало се някога в град Бруклин. Повече от 100 автомобила взеха участие в погребалното шествие, което завърши на гробището Сейнт Джон в Куинс, Ню Йорк; на същото гробище беше погребан неговият приятел през целия живот Чарлз „Лъки“ Лучано.

Във филма от 1985 г. "Честта на Прици", режисиран от Джон Хъстън и с участието на Джак Никълсън, актьорът Уилям Хики играе Дон Коррадо Прици, герой, базиран на Дон Карло Гамбино.


Mafiots, Gangs, Criminals and Scammers – Allie "Tick Tock" Tannenbaum

It was thin rail (140 pounds – tops) and strikingly beautiful. Still, Ali Tanenbaum, who started as a worker at his father's Catskill hotel, has become one of Murder Incorporated's most accomplished killers. Tannenbaum also became a rat who helped put his boss, Louis "Lepke" Bookletter in the electric chair.

Tanenbaum was born on January 17, 1906 in Nanticoke, PA. When Tannenbaum was only two years old, his father Sam moved the family to Orchard Street, in the lower east side of Manhattan. In New York, Sam Tanenbaum, as well as in Pennsylvania, operated a common store. As a teenager, Ali Tanenbaum had a habit of always talking, talking, talking. He talked so much, people said it sounded like a clock – hence the nickname Tick Tock.

After World War I, Sam Tanenbaum raised enough money to buy the Loch Sheldrake Country Club in Catskills, New York. By the time his father bought the village club, Ali was already in his third year of high school (later also attending college for several semesters). This was quite an achievement, as most boys of the Tannenbaum age in the Lower East Side had already dropped out of school after grade 8 and were working in jobs, some legal and others not so legal. Taking advantage of his son, Sam Tanenbaum hired Ali at his hotel, either waiting at tables or setting up beach chairs by the lake. Despite the early hard work he had imposed on his son, Sam Tannenbaum raised Ali as his replacement. Yet it was not to be.

The Loch Sheldrake Country Club was a ritual establishment and housed many wealthy Jewish families for their summer vacations. Jewish gangsters also visited the village club. Among them were Harry Greeny Greenberg, Louis Lepke and his partner Jacob Gura Shapiro. Shapiro was a thick-breasted gorilla of a man who supplied the muscle for many of Lepke's illegal businesses. Whenever Shapiro was angry, and often was, his favorite phrase was, "Get out of here." Yet, with his gravelly voice, the phrase sounded like "Gura is nowhere". Therefore, his friends gave him the nickname Shapiro Gura.

Ali Tanenbaum met some of the visitors to the country clubs, including Shimi Salsa, who was a stickler for the Lepke rockets, Curley Holtz, racketeering and even Lepke himself. As the owner's son, the Jewish gangsters invited Tannenbaum to all their parties. According to the arrangement with his father, Tannenbaum did not receive a single penny, just after the summer, which basically ended the holiday season. As Tanenbaum walked around his father's resort home dead, he noticed that all the Jewish gangsters had enough money to carry around. This made him suspected in their world of organized crime.

In the late summer of 1931, Tanenbaum was walking on Broadway in Manhattan when he came across Big Harry Shakter, one of Lepke's foothills.

Schacter asked Tannenbaum: "Do you want a job?"

"I could use it if it paid," Tanenbaum said.

Shaktor smiled. "This one is for Lepke. You know what the job will be."

Tanenbaum shrugged and said he would do whatever it took to earn some fantastic money.

Tannenbaum started working for Lepke, initially for $ 35 a week. His work included common tasks such as dropping, destroying blows and throwing stink bombs where they had to be thrown. Later, Tannenbaum completed more important duties, such as "shame", which meant that he was "ashamed" or cracked the heads of union workers who did not drag Lepke's line.

As production increased, Tannenbaum's salary increased. In the end, Tannenbaum, who had hitherto been involved in six murders and helped dispose of the body of seven homicide victims, was earning an impressive $ 125 a week. Because of Tannenbaum's summer location in the Catskills, his work included mostly murders and blackmail in New York. Tanenbaum was a valuable asset for Lepke in Sullivan County, as Tanenbaum was familiar with the back roads and the many lakes where bodies could be harvested. In the winter, Tanenbaum and his family relaxed in Florida, where Tanenbaum worked as a strong-arm man in several gambling joints at Lepke.

Tannenbaum's biggest hit on Lepke was the 1939 assassination of Harry "Big Green" Greenberg, who was suspected of talking to the government about Lepke's business. Tannenbaum was given the assignment to kill Greenberg by Lepke through one of Lepke's mediators (to isolate himself from any link to the murder, Lepke himself never gave orders to his killers).

Tanenbaum lurks Greenberg, first to Montreal, then to Detroit, before finally striking Greenberg in Los Angeles. On November 23, 1939, Tanenbaum, along with Buggy Seagle, were waiting outside the Greenberg building. When Greenberg emerged, Tanenbaum and Siegel pushed the Big Throat with bullets. This is considered the first "murder of a mafia" in southern California.

In 1940, Tanenbaum was vacationing in Florida when he received news that Lepke had been arrested and that the homicide slayer, Abe "Kid Twist" Reles, now sings as a canary for the work of "Murder Incorporated." Tanenbaum immediately took the train to New York and went to the house of Charlie the Bug's worker, another of Lepke's best killers. The reason for Tannenbaum's visit was that he sought funding from Workman to go to the Detroit gang. While luck would have it, as Tanenbaum and Workman were sitting in Workman's living room, Detective Abraham Belsky knocked on the door to arrest Workman. Belski was pleasantly surprised to find Tanenbaum there as well.

At first, Tanenbaum refused to creak. When Tannenbaum was questioned by police over a three-day period, he repeatedly said, "I refuse to answer on the basis of my constitutional rights."

Dekelman County Prosecutor, however, suddenly struck Tanenbaum with an indictment, blaming Tanenbaum and Pittsburgh Phil Strauss for the 1936 murder of Irv Ashkenaz, a taxi owner who roared on the cops in the cabin of the Manhattan cabin. Ashkenaz's body was found near the entrance of the Catskills Hotel, pierced with sixteen bullets.

"We have enough of you to put you on the chair," Dekelman District Attorney told Tannenbaum.

Suddenly, Tannenbaum, alive with his nickname Tick Tock, began to speak incessantly. Tanenbaum told Dekelman about all the killings he was involved in and how they were linked to Lepke.

At the witness stand, during Lepke's track, Tannenbaum put the last nail in Lepke's casket when he testified about the day he heard Lepke order the murder of the owner of a candy store named Joe Rosen. Lepke was always cool and collected and careful about what he said to anyone. In fact, Lepke never gave a direct order to Tanenbaum to kill. This information was always transmitted to Tannenbaum through an intermediary close to Lepke.

In 1936, however, Tannenbaum was ordered by Mandy Weiss to kill Irv Ashkenaz. However, Tannenbaum was told by Weiss to report directly to Lepke when the case was completed. After Ashkenaz's dismissal, Tannenbaum went downtown to Lepke's center to tell Lepke that Ashkenaz was indeed dead. When he entered Lepke's office, Tanenbaum came across an angry Lepke, shouting at Max Rubin, one of Lepke's closest confidants.

Tannenbaum testified to the witness before District Attorney Burton Turkus: "Lepke yelled that he gave Joe Rosen money to go, and then he sneaks back to the candy store after telling him to stay away. Lepke swore: "There's a son of a bitch who will never come down to talk to Dewey about me. Max (Rubin) was trying to calm him down. He said, "easier; easier Louis. I'll deal with Joe Rosen; he is fine. ""

"What did you say to this Lepke?" asked Turkus Tanenbaum.

Tannenbaum replied, "He says, 'You told me this before.' He says, "This is the end. I'm annoying this son of a bitch. " He says, "I'll take care of him, too."

Tannenbaum testified that two days after his meeting with Lepke and Rubin, in Lepke's office, he read in the newspaper that Joe Rosen had been shot 16 times while opening his candy store in Brownsville, Brooklyn.

Tannenbaum's testimony related to Rosen's murder corroborates Abe Reles's testimony and was a lethal blow to Lepke. It took the jury only four hours to convict Lepke of first-degree murder, which landed Lepke in the electric chair four years later. For his testimony against Lepke Tanenbaum received a short sentence of imprisonment, a slight slap on the wrist of a man who committed at least six murders.

Little is known about what Tannenbaum did for the rest of his life. He seems to have disappeared from the face of the earth, except for the times when he reappeared to testify against his old murderous friends. In Rich Cohen's Book of Difficult Jews, Cohen says, in the 1950s, Tannenbaum worked in Atlanta for some time as a shade salesman.

In 1950, Tanenbaum emerged from the timber and testified in the murder trial of Jack Parisi, another man killed by a murder who had been on the lamb for ten years. Despite Tannenbaum's testimony, the judge found Paris guilty.

In 1976, unlike most of his contemporaries, Tanenbaum died of natural causes on an unnamed island off the coast of Florida. He was 70 years old.


Long Island Rail Sights: Riverhead and Greenport

Long Island Railroad Museum in Riverhead:

Although Riverhead may be considered a virtual end of Long Island, it was only the beginning of the initially foreseen intermodal rail and sea link of the North Fork to the eventual cross ferry connection.

Accepting its earliest name for the settlement of Head of the River or Head of the River, the finally designated monolingual "River Head", the ninth of the ten cities of Suffolk County, was created by the west end of Southhold on March 13, 1792. .

Thus separate and autonomous, it was injected with growth with the arrival of the railroad and the train station, built on July 29, 1844 and serving the South Ferry, Brooklyn to the Greenport line, was built on what is now Railroad Avenue. Despite his intended purpose, he directed his own decarbuying passenger to the stage coaches who took them to Kugu and other southern island destinations.

Trains in the East served the city on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, while the western ones, back to Brooklyn, did so Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

Commercial, milling and manufacturing activities, its predominantly commercial endeavors, catered to 1,600 people in 1875, with the community boasting two mills, offices, 20 shops, three hotels and six churches.

The replacement of the original train depot, which was transformed into a railroad workers' home, with a wooden frame designed by Charles Hallett and including carved trim and elaborate finishes, was built west of Griffing Avenue between 1869 and 1870. This was subsequently replaced by a third, this time including a brick in its construction, on June 2, 1910.

"In the early 1900s, the East was a place of prosperous potato farms in the summer and deep snow in the winter," writes Ron Sieel and George H. Foster in their book Steel Rails to Sunrise: The Long Island Railroad (Ameron House , 1965, p. 158).

"From the moment it became aware that the original cause of its existence had disappeared with the construction of the New Haven to Boston railroad (fifty years earlier), LIRR had played an important role in the development of the eastbound areas," they continued (p. 158). "… Business and civic organizations across the island have joined prominent citizens, newspapers and the railroad to promote Long Island travel and settlements."

However, this development was hardly rapid and when the rails were later replaced by roads, the re-invented, intermodal purpose of the railroad had disappeared, leaving most of the passengers traveling to Manhattan during mass morning eviction.

In fact, by 1963, the main line east of the Riverhead had been reduced to a single daily passenger and three-week freight operation, initially using the route intended for the mid-19th century rail-sea link.

Today's high-level concrete platform, which bears no mark on certain days and seasons, was built between 1996 and 1997, but for rail lovers, part of its history has been preserved at the Long Island Railroad Museum by then.

"Long Island's history can be traced to the steel rails that cross its diverse landscape – from the dark tunnels beneath New York to the farms and sand dunes of the East End," according to its website. "The Long Island Railroad Museum seeks to illustrate this story through interpretive displays from its archive of photographs and artifacts, as well as through the preservation and restoration of vintage railroad equipment at its two locations in Riverhead and Greenport, New York."

The first, consisting of a 70-meter parcel of land, now owned by the Sofia Transport Authority, but leased to the museum, once transported a pump, water tower and turntable that was no longer compatible with the larger , more powerful locomotives appearing during World War II. Today, the cornerstone of the complex is a 1885 building and used by the Corwin and Vale Wooden Courtyards, but now serves as a visitor center for the Lionel model railroad car, Long Island Railroad sports wagons in various animal art, cardboard and a replica of Balsa wood from Riverhead's landmark, marking its 100th anniversary, and a gift shop.

Beyond it is the Lionel Visitor Center, featuring a multi-storey circus display with the Ringling and Barnum and Bailey brothers, a water tower that identifies the city as "Lionelville", and 72 accessories activated by buttons from turning wind turbines to illuminated control towers .

Outside are two other rail lines: the Freeman Rail rail line and the elaborate detour and ride, 1964-1965 Fair Fair.

Built by Alan Herschel, the 16-lane train itself was an integral part of the Long Island Rail Pavilion, then used by Grumman Aerospace at its company picnic in Calverton before being used by the Patchogue Village and eventually donated to the museum. .

After it was restored, its engine and three cars carrying the world's livery and world advertising, "Ride the Log Log. Travel easily, your steel drive to the Fair Gateway ', moving 670 feet from the runway, usually deviating every half hour and making three chains. Waters are included with allowance.

The passage to it, originally located in Hinduwood, Queens, and protected the weather guards, made it easier to manually lower and lift the gates when trains crossed to prevent pedestrians and cars from moving. Riverhead returned to the automatic system in the early 1950s.

The Long Island steam and diesel locomotive and railroad museum is diverse and historically significant. Although several are displayed outside the gift shop, most are located across Griffing Avenue, parallel to the current LIRR songs and from the current Riverhead Station.

Players at the end of the steam event in 1955 are on display here, though at different stages of restoration.

Time, distance and technology separated the steam locomotives from their coaches more than half a century ago, but the museum has reassembled some of them, and they are now standing only a few meters away from each other, albeit in static but restorative states.

As one of the ten wheels of the Pennsylvania Railroad of the G-5 class, the No. 39 engine, for example, was constructed in its Juniata stores in 1923, but its robust capabilities, expressed by its features, are ideally suited to the everyday, demanding line for travel service: gross weight of 237,000 pounds, cylinder power of 2 178 hp, boiler pressure of 205 psi, force of 41,328 pounds and speed between 70 and 85 mph.

Mainly operating the Oyster Bay branch, it was the last steam engine to travel to Greenport in June 1955.

Putting his railroad car into the hands of the RS-3 diesel locomotive, number 1556, at the time of the end of Steam in Hicksville, he gave up the era. This 1600hp AGP-16msc engine, equipped with multiple speed control and built by an American locomotive company, subsequently served the Long Island rail system for 22 years, after which it was purchased from the Gettysburg and Maryland Midlands Railways. , and was finally acquired by the museum.

An interesting, but not necessarily related to Long Island history is the recently acquired Brooklyn Eastern Railway Terminal (BEDT) locomotive, characterized by a 0-6-0 wheel configuration. Designed by HK Porter in 1923 for the Astoria Power and Light Company, it goes into several hands, including those of Fleischman & # 39; s yeast company in Peekskill, New York; the Alabama Railroad and Locomotive Company; and finally, since 1938, the Brooklyn East Terminal itself, numbering 16 and providing a floating car service from the Brooklyn coastline to several Class 1 railroads in Manhattan, the Bronx and New Jersey .

As the last steam engine operating both east of the Mississippi River and in New York, it was not retired until October 1963, or eight years after the Long Island Railroad ceased its own use of the technology.

The cars are also well represented by the museum.

The two-story # 200 trainer, who shared his Tuscan red paint, was the first such two-level aluminum car. A joint project between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), a 120-passenger pilot prototype built in 1932, was an attempt to increase capacity without creating excessively long trains and because of its non-standard status, appeared without controls. stands or traction motors. Designated for the T-62 class in production form, they accommodated 132.

A later, more ubiquitous passenger car was the P72, of which there are two on display, sporting the earlier northern circuit of blue and the platinum mist of the Long Island Railroad. Numbered 2923 and 2924, they were part of a 1954 order for 25 locomotive, 120-passenger passenger cars manufactured by Pullman Standard at the Osgood Bradley plant in Worcester, MA, initially appearing with battery and steam lighting heating, but were subsequently retrofitted with diesel generators under the car, which supply power to these utilities. Having served the Yeoman service for 44 years, they were not retired until 1999.

The significance of the museum couple is that they both participate in the Steam End Ceremony in Hicksville: car 2924 was pulled from engine 39 and a Boy Scout troop from Brooklyn housed, while car 2923 was similarly pulled from engine 35, but comes from the East End.

Unbound, the former is attached to a 1556 diesel engine, leaving for Jamaica, while the second joins the 1555, leaving for Riverhead. Almost hand-in-hand, the pair of unmanned locomotives set off for the steam era, entering their retirement home in Morris Park.

Another significant pair of cars are the two M1s on the museum, shown on the same track.

At 85 feet, 10.6 feet long and 122 passenger capacity, these single-passenger, stainless steel cars with rounded fiberglass lids feature four 160-hp General Electric 1255 A2 traction motors. and four-point automatic sliding doors. They had a four-meter, 8.5-inch track and offered a maximum radius of curvature of 240 feet for compound units and served as the threshold for the electrified era for the Long Island Railroad, as expressed in the public relations brochure, entitled, " A New Generation in Rail Travel: Meet the Metropolitan, who promised that "a new era of rail travel is beginning on the Long Island Railroad."

"The elegant stainless steel Metropolitan represents a new generation in suburban rail services," the release said. "This brings a whole new look to the Long Island Railroad, the nation's largest rail transportation system."

Explaining the motivation behind the design, he said: "(The Metropolitan Transportation Authority) determined that it was 'more of the same' to meet the expectations for the equipment (needs and) of the Long Island Railroad (not an option).

"An exceptional group of experts turned to the MTA to work out the detailed specifications of the cars, which led to the birth of the Metropolitan.

"This joint operation is managed by the MTA and its technical staff, working in close collaboration with the experienced Long Island Railway operations staff. This effort has resulted in a record time, and the specifications for the dramatically modified, newly created rail passenger car will be at the forefront of long-distance travel … "

A firm order for the 620 M1 Metropolitans and 150 variants, then the largest single North American for multi-unit electric cars, was made with Budd, and deliveries were made between 1968 and 1973.

In need of an increase in power from 650 to 750 volts DC drawn from a contact shoe-third rail connection, the type went into service in an eight-wagon configuration on December 30, 1968, from Brooklyn to Penn Station, blurring the lines between the typical railroad line passenger line supplementing engines and buses and the concept of autonomous subway.

"Metropolitan trains are stacked in two wagons, fully equipped for independent operations …", the public relations brochure explained. "One car in each unit contains batteries and a motor alternator. The other houses the air compressor. Metropolitan is the first such multiple train operation in operation."

The brochure also highlighted its development.

"America's fastest, most modern railcar is packed with innovations and advanced features designed to provide a high level of service and comfort to the LIRR rider."

Progressively replaced at the beginning of the 21st century by the successful M7 cars commissioned by Bombardier of Canada, the first of which was delivered in 2002, it participates in its own farewell to the M1, host of the Head of the National Sunrise Trail Railroad Historical Society, four years later, on November 4th.

No freight train or railway museum would be complete without a cab. The window screen displayed on the Long Island Museum of Rail Transportation, numbered C-68, serves as the conductor's office, the end-of-car safety monitoring point and the crew's living area when moving allows you to return to the start stations for the night.

Greenport Railway Museum in Greenport:

Twenty-three road miles east is Greenport, the other location of the Long Island Railroad Museum and the end of the line. But when the Long Island Railroad was conceived, it was only the beginning of it – in terms of its intended purpose and the point of intermodal connection, where the torch was transmitted from a train to a transverse sounding steamer. Eventually, technology conquered the southern Connecticut rail route to Boston and destroyed the foundation of the newly-built concern.

However, while the other facility of the museum is poorly mobile, it is rich in history.

Settled by colonists in New Haven in 1648, it takes advantage of its eastern, accessible water location, develops a shipping and shipping hub, with small ships transporting production to Connecticut and larger, serving New York and New England. The whaling began in 1790.

Because its port was intended as an end point and transfer point, it also attracted the runway.

"Greenport was the place that made the Long Island Railroad built," according to historian Frederick A. Kramer. "With a marvelous port opening to Gardiner Bay, batch ships for continental connection to Boston had to put together whales and local fishing boats."

Although Greenport opened its doors on July 29, 1844, the first official trip and the first segment of the advertised "via Boston route" did not happen until next month, August 10, with the train leaving Brooklyn at 08: 00 and arriving at 12:00, after which the passengers transferred to the railroad-owned steamboat, Cleopatra (part of its $ 400,000 investment in boats and docks) for the two-hour passage to Stonington, Connecticut, and then completion of the trip, again with a rail trance sports, to Boston on Norwich and Worcester.

Although the fire devours the original wooden depot and platform, opened on July 27, 1844, a quarter-century later, designed by Charles Hallett, rises to the north of the twin tracks in October 1870, turning Greenport into a railway center with a freight house, a turntable, a shipping port and a storage depot that serves as a starting point for Pullman cars destined for cities west of Pittsburgh.

Although the North Fork as a whole and the area around it in particular still cultivate potatoes and cauliflower, this once remote farmland has been reduced to hours in distance and resized to its intended purpose, attracting people who have developed commerce and industry.

Unsuccessfully competing with the New Haven and Hartford railroad and then trying to rely on interstitial traffic after his initial plan was plundered, he was still able to transport his crops to the markets of the west and the fleet that owns the railroad provides access. to Block Island, Montauk on the South Fork and New London in Connecticut.

To facilitate what remained of the Long Island rail trip and still provide protection against the salty air of seawater, a third Victorian-style depot was built in 1892, including a red brick structure. и декоративни функции, като покрив на бедрата, релеф шарки, гребени от ковано желязо и финали. Заедно с едновременно отворената товарна къща, която сама включваше камион за камиони, плъзгащи се врати, заобикаляща дървена палуба и четири стъпален вход от Четвърта улица, тя се присъедини към другите съоръжения в това, което се е развило в обширен железопътен двор и включва четиристройна машинна къща, резервоар за вода, зона за нагряване и структури за поддръжка.

Влакът от Изток Енд, както се очакваше, намаля, като ежедневното пътуване между Amagansett и Greenport се извършва от малък, 4-4-0 парен локомотив, който дърпа комбайн (пътнически и багажен) автомобил и пълен вагон. Тръгна в 10:00 и направи междинни спирки в Ийстпорт и Манорвил. Тъй като последва полукръгово трасе, пистата за записване на загуби, носеща поща, експрес и шепа души, беше алтернативно наречена „Scoot“ и „Cape Town Train“.

След уволнение в Грийнпорт, тя продължи стъпките си, като отново отпътува в 14:00.

Но появата на автомобила и амортисьора на Депресията ускори прекратяването му през февруари 1931г.

„(Днес) двете сградни гари, комбинирани с историческия грамофон и навесът на секцията, съдържат най-голямото и най-пълно представяне на железопътни сгради и конструкции, които да оцелеят в един и специфичен исторически район на Лонг Айлънд“, според Уебсайтът на железопътния музей на Лонг Айлънд.

Една от тях, оригиналната товарна къща, помещава самия музей.

От значение са две железопътни модели на HO-габарит, изобразяващи Грийнпорт през 50-те години и днес. Общото между двамата е неразделната роля, която доковете, пристанището и морския град винаги са играли в своята история.

Друг важен аспект беше обслужването на автомобили в салоните, железопътната линия Лонг Айлънд, експлоатирана между 40-те и 80-те години на миналия век, осигуряваща разкошен и популярен начин на пътуване за нюйоркчани, които почиват в Ийст Енд или просто правят бягство от уикенда, и дисплеите разполагат с удобните места за сядане, прибори за хранене и Китай. Това до Монтаук, на южната вилка, беше наречено „Cannonball“, а самият Greenport „Express Shelter Island Express“.

Железопътната атмосфера от по-ранна епоха се създава от артефакти и прибори, считани някога за „модерни“, като ръчна пишеща машина, ръчно задействан телефон, вагон за маркуч, охладител за вода, сигнални лампи на флагмански и кондукторни прозорци и прозорци за билети.

Останките от кулата Блис, които по-рано са били разположени в участъка Блисвил в Куинс, илюстрират как съоръжения като тези са поставени в точките на затваряне на коловози, което дава възможност на операторите да осъществят визуален контакт с приближаващите влакове и по подходящ начин да се активират, чрез ръчни средства, кросоувър превключватели, които по същество служиха като кормилни механизми на локомотивите.

Например, контролирайки трафика от Лонг Айлънд Сити по разклона на Монтаук, тези кули представляват интегрална инфраструктура за пресичане в продължение на един век, докато автоматизацията не елиминира нуждата им.

Няколко автомобила са изложени навън на коловоза, до който се достига от заобикалящата дървена палуба на товарното депо.

Бившата клинови снегорини Long Island Railroad W-83, например, беше прикрепена пред един или повече локомотиви и избутана със скорост до 35 мили / ч, изчиствайки следите от сняг. Поради схемата на боята, наподобяваща зъби, примерът на музея, който е единственият останал такъв модул LIRR, беше наречен "челюсти".

Кабусът номер 14 зад него, построен от американската компания за автомобили и леяри през 1927 г., беше част от последната поръчка на железниците за дървени и обслужваше цялата маршрутна система, включително клонове, които вече не съществуват.

След пенсионирането си през 60-те години на миналия век тя преминава в няколко вторични ръце, включително тези на Бранфордската електрическа железопътна линия, долината на долината в Есекс, Кънектикът и накрая музея, връщайки се на родината в Лонг Айлънд на 17 май 1997 г.

Отвъд експонатите на подвижния състав на музея и от тройната, все още активна железопътна линия на Лонг Айланд е грамофонът с дължина 80 фута, последно използван от парен локомотив № 39 на 5 юни 1955 г. и един от оставащите само три. Тя е единствената с пневматично задвижване.

Предполаган, че един ден ще бъде презастроен за екскурзионни влакове с парно захранване между музеите Riverhead и Greenport, това ще даде възможност на пътниците да покрият Северната вилка с железопътна линия и да изкопаят оригиналната писта почти два века след полагането й.

Вляво от грамофона е бетонната платформа на високо ниво, построена между 1997 и 1998 г. и най-много полета на LIRR операции в два дни. Вляво от него е оригиналната сграда на станцията от 1897 г., която се затвори 70 години по-късно, но сега се намира музеят на пристанището в Ийст Енд.

И накрая, сегашният пристан за разтягане на пристанището замени този, който някога поддържаше коловозите, водещи към параходите, свързани с Стонингтън, първоначалното предназначение на железопътната линия Long Island.


Mafiots – Big Bill Dwyer – The King of Romanians

He started out as a simple docking worker, scaled up on a large scale and was known as the "King of the Rumble Runners". Big Bill Dwyer has made so much money, he has partnered with famous gangsters at several weak New York nightclubs. Dwyer also owned two professional hockey teams, including the Americans from New York, and owned the Brooklyn Dodgers football team. In the end, however, when Big Bill Dwyer died, he died from the spotlight and the plane broke.

William Vincent Dwyer was born in 1883 in the Hells Kitchen area of ​​western New York. Two bands, the Hudson Duster and the Gophers, operated Hell's Kitchen at the time, but Dwyer avoided joining both bands and instead took the dock job as stewardor for the International Union of Long Roads (ILU).

While working on the docks, Dwyer begins his own bookmaking operation. After the Wolsted Act, which banned the distribution of alcohol, came into force in 1919, with the money he made from a bookmaker, Dwyer diversified into the booming business. Dwyer bought a fleet of steel boats, each with a machine gun mounted, in case the crooks tried to hijack a shipment. Dwyer also purchased several large rum vessels that were needed to unload the illegal cord from any boat.

Dwyer travels to Canada, England and the Caribbean to establish relationships with those who sell him the alcohol he needs to smuggle in the United States. Dwyer then created a system through which his ships would meet ships that supplied him with liquor many miles out to sea. There, the drink was transferred to Dwyer's ships and then quickly transported to Dwyer's motor boats, which were closer to the New York coast.

The motor boats were unloaded on the docks, which were protected by ILU Local 791, of which Dwyer was a charter member. From the docks, the liquor has been moved to several warehouses in the New York area. When the time came, trucks loaded with illegal alcohol and protected by convoys of crew members were transporting drinks throughout the country: heavy shipments to Florida, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati and New Orleans.

Dwyer was able to smuggle large quantities of alcoholic beverages in New York because he knew a simple fact: you have to bribe the police and the Coast Guard if you want to succeed in a startup business. And Dwyer did so, handing over thousands of dollars to those who need to be cut.

Paying for New York cops was easy. The cops who hadn't given away graft money were far and few between. However, Dwyer was particularly adept at recruiting Coast Guard members to look the other way when his boats entered the waters of New York.

Dwyer's first contact was Olson's small-time Coast Guard officer. Through Olsen Dwyer, he met dozens of coast guards, "security guards" who he called, who might be willing to take bribes. Dwyer would bring these guards into the bright lights of New York, where he would feed them sumptuous meals, take them to Broadway shows, and even get them a small hotel room occupied by the lady of their choice, for whom Dwyer would also pay . After Guardie took a bribe from Dwyer, he was informed that he could earn hundreds and sometimes thousands of dollars more if he could appoint other Guardies to protect Dwyer's shipments.

Soon Dwyer made so much money through bootlegging, he was considered the largest distributor of illegal alcohol in the entire United States of America. Dwyer, however, had a huge problem that needed help solving it. Whenever one of his trucks left New York to distribute alcohol to other parts of the country, they were vulnerable to being captured by hundreds of abductors operating throughout the country. Dwyer knew how to stop this from happening, which he had to take in partners – members of the Italian mafia and the Jewish mafia. As he roared with millions of profits, Dwyer did not mind, and could certainly afford to share the wealth. The problem was that Dwyer was not considered a businessman and was not the gangster himself. Dwyer needed someone in the underworld who could make the contacts Dwyer needed to continue working without fear of being abducted.

Almost by accident, this man fell right into Dwyer's lap. In 1924, two of Dwyer's shipments were abducted in New York. Dwyer leaned against the cops on his payroll to find out who was responsible for the abductions. Soon Word returned to Dwyer that the perpetrator arrested for the abductions was none other than Owen Madden, himself an Irishman who grew up in Liverpool, England, before emigrating to New York as a teenager. Madden was nicknamed the "Murderer" and once ran the Gofer murder gang in Hell's kitchen.

Dwyer paid everyone who had to be paid to drop charges against Madden, with the order "Make me Ouni Madden. I want to talk to him. I have a business proposal that we need to discuss."

Madden received word who was his benefactor and that he was expected to meet Dwyer in return. The two men met at Dwyer's office in the Times Square Loew State Building. There is no record or transcript of this meeting, but T.J. English, in his masterpiece for Irish gangsters called Paddy Whacked, said the conversation between Madden and Dwyer might have gone something like this:

"You have a problem," Madden would say to Dwyer. "Gangsters are beating your trucks like ducks and what are you going to do about it?"

"That's why I called you here."

"You have to organize cherry archers and pickers, not to mention bulls (cops) and shelves (politicians)."

"I'm right. I need kidnappings to stop. I need a place to make my own brew right here in town. Protected by tigers and dill. And I need outlets – speakers, nightclubs, you do it call. "

“You need a lot, my friend.

"Are you with me?"

"Give me one reason why."

"I can make you rich."

"Pal, you and I are two peas in a pod."

And that was the start of the Irish Mafia in New York, which would then team up with Italian and Jewish mafia to control the startup business in the United States. The grouping of the three ethnic mafias was known as the Combination.

With millions of Dwyer, Madden oversees the creation of Phoenix Cereal Drink Company, located on 26th Street and 10th Avenue, right in the heart of Hell's Kitchen, where both Madden and Dwyer grew up. This red brick building, which consisted of the entire block, was originally the Clausen & Flanagan brewery, which was created for the production and sale of beer in the vicinity that no real beer drinker would let his lips pass. The beer made in Phoenix was called Madden's # 1.

With Dwyer basically the man behind the scenes, Madden became the architect who created and nourished their empire. Madden brought in a former taxi business owner named Larry Fay as the front man of several high-end establishments that were needed to sell Madden No. 1, plus all the scotch, rum, vodka, cognac and champagne the combine smuggled into town. One of those places was El Faye on 54 West Street.

The main attraction in El Fay was Texas Ginan, a cabaret singer / comedian cabaret singer who was later copied by May West. To entice Ginan to work in El Fay, Madden and Dwyer made Ginan a partner. Ginan was known for her wise men who roared between clutches or a piercing whistle as she sat in a high chair in the main room. Guinan's signature said, "Hello Suker," so she congratulated all of El Fay's well-healed clients.

When a singer or dancer finishes performing in El Fay, Ginan will exhort the crowd to "Give the little lady a great big hand!"

One day, a restraining agent who couldn't be bought by Madden or Dwyer attacked El Fay. He approached Ginan, put a hand on her shoulder, and told his fellow agent, "Give the little lady a big big handcuff."

Dwyer did what he did best, Ginan was released from prison, and El Fay soon jumped again, making everyone involved really rich.

Madden and Dwyer also partner with former bootlegger Sherman Billingsley at the extremely modern Stork Club on East 53rd Street. The two Irish gangsters spread their wings in northern Manhattan when they bought Club De Luxe from former heavyweight champion Jack Johnson. They appointed Big Frenchy De Mange as their operating partner and changed the name to Cotton Club. At Cotton Club De Mange set up a policy for accepting Whites Only, despite the fact that the waiters, dancers and title artists such as Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Nicholas Brothers were all black.

Still, the Cotton Club was thriving with big spending from the center, putting tons of money into the pockets of Dwyer and Madden.

In 1925, Dwyer was arrested for attempting to bribe members of the Coast Guard during a sting operation led by the Prohibition Bureau. Dwyer was sentenced to two years in prison, but was released for good behavior after 13 months. With Dwyer in the can, Frank Costello took over the refueling business with Dwyer.

While in jail, an angry Dwyer told one of his teammates. "I wish I had never seen a case of whiskey. I spent years in the daily fear of my life, I always expected to be arrested, I always deal with crooks and double croissants, and now look at me. My wife is heartbroken and I'm over worse than broken. "

As we shall see, this was not true.

When Dwyer took to the streets again, he broke free of the boom, leaving the operation of Costello and Madden's rum. To pass his time, Dwyer began investing in legitimate businesses, especially in sports teams.

In 1926, boxing promoter Tex Ricard joined Dwyer to buy the National Hockey League's Hamilton Tigers. Dwyer did this and he moved his team to New York's Madison Square Garden and renamed them New York Americans. As smart as Dwyer was in running the bootleg business, he was just as dumb in running a hockey team. Dwyer's strategy of winning pockets in his pockets was bursting with cash, generally overpaying all of his team. When the average hockey player makes between $ 1,500 and $ 2,000 a year, Dwyer gives Billy Birch a 3-year contract for $ 25,000. Shorty Green also got a huge raise when Dwyer awarded him a $ 5,000 a year contract.

Being an old crook in his heart, Dwyer took an active part in the leadership of his team, even going so far as to try and install the games. Dwyer paid the referees a goal to rule that his team scored a goal if the puck just touched the goal line instead of completely passing the goal, which is the rule.

Playing in 1927 at Madison Square Garden, the goalie Dwyer had in his pocket began to mock Ottawa goalie Alex Connell for some unknown reason. Connell punched his hockey stick in the nose of the referee's goal. Dwyer was outraged by the Ottawa goalkeeper's actions (you do not control one of Dwyer's employees), and Connell was told to leave town shortly after the game. A police detail led Connell to the station and protected it until the train left the city safely. After the train left the train, a man asked Connell if he was Ottawa goalkeeper Alex Connell. Connel fears for his life, told the stranger no. And as a result, he lives in goalkeeping other hockey games.

Bypassing the league's rule that one cannot own two hockey teams, in 1929, Dwyer, using former boxing champion Benny Leonard as his front man, purchased the NHL's Pirates. In 1930, Dwyer also inserted his dirty fingers into the newly formed National Football League, buying the Dayton Triangles for $ 2,500. Dwyer moved the team to Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and renamed them Brooklyn Dodgers.

After three years, Dwyer, once again overpaying all his players, began to lose so much money, he sold the Brooklyn Dodgers to two former New York Giants football players: Chris Cagle and John Sims for $ 25,000. Although he sold the team 10 times more than he paid, Dwyer estimated that he still lost $ 30,000 in the three years he owned the team.

In 1934, filled with sports teams in America (he still owned the Americans from New York, but they were bleeding money), Dwyer bought the famous tropical horse race track in Miami, Florida.

However, the roof fell to Dwyer when, in 1935, he was charged with a gambling charge. Dwyer won the case, but then his government did what they did to Al Capone: they hit him with tax evasion fees. These allegations remained and Dwyer was seized of all his assets except the Americans from New York and a house in Bel Harbor, Queens. With almost no money, Dwyer no longer had the money to keep the Americans of New York afloat.

In 1937, the National Hockey League temporarily took control of the Americans from New York. To show the NHL that he was financially solvent, Dwyer borrowed $ 20,000 from Red Dutton. However, instead of paying the salaries of his team, Dwyer decided to try to multiply his money by playing nonsense. That didn't go over well when Dwyer went out and lost a full twenty grand. Unable to pay his team and unable to raise more capital, the NHL steadily started Dwyer and took over the last control of the Americans in New York. Devastated and humiliated, Dwyer retired to his home in Bell's harbor.

On December 10, 1943, Big Bill Dwyer, the "King of the Romanians," died at the age of 63. According to Dwyer, he has no money, his only asset being the roof over his head.


Brooklyn Bridge – triumphant icon

The Brooklyn Bridge is one of America's famous suspension bridges, it is also the oldest. Extending over the East River at 1,825 feet, it is able to connect Manhattan and Long Island.

By the time it was completed, it was thought to be the longest bridge in the world. What made the bridge unique was that it was also the first suspension bridge to be constructed using steel wires.

The term Brooklyn Bridge was recently used. It was formerly referred to as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and was later referred to as the Brooklyn Bridge in a letter to the editor of the Daily Eagle in Brooklyn in 1867. However, it was not until 1915 that the bridge was officially named by the city government as the Brooklyn bridge. In 1964, the bridge was recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and since then the view of the shiny looped bridge has become part of New York's unique silhouette.

Against the backdrop of many fans, the bridge was discovered in 1883. The structure bears the names of John, Washington and Emily Warren Robling as the designers who began work on the landmark in 1870. It was completed only thirteen years later and is attributed to the efforts of the people mentioned above. Emily Warling Robling in history books claims to be the driving force behind structure. Her father-in-law, John Robling, fell to his feet in 1872, leaving him paralyzed and later succumbing to his injuries. This left all the responsibility for its construction in the hands of Washington Robling and his wife.

The bridge that stands today is not just a structure but a tribute to the spirit of a woman. Emily Robling's husband also suffered internal injuries due to decompression sickness, under his direction and due to his education in higher mathematical and cable structures, she was able to stand in his stead and lead. It took eleven years of hard work and struggle to build this magnificent structure that remains to this day as a symbol of the legacy left by Robbles.


The Great Rocking Chair Scandal

Nothing incites the general public more than someone trying to charge for something that was once free. Yet that’s exactly what entrepreneur Oscar F. Spate tried to do in the New York City parks in the blistering summer of 1901.

It all started in Central Park on June 22, 1901, when a group of people spotted rows of bright green rocking chairs along the park’s mall, near the casino. Usually in this same spot, stood rows of uncomfortable wooden hard benches, so it was a pleasure indeed for the park-goes to sit and rock and enjoy the wondrous summer day.

Suddenly, two broad-shouldered men approached the rocking-chair sitters. They wore identical gray suits and they carried black satchels with straps over their shoulders. The men in gray told the sitters that these were private chairs for rent, and that if they wanted to continue sitting they had to fork over five cents a day for the better seats, and three cents a day for seats that were not in as preferential a position in the park. Some people vacated their seats, but others paid. People who did neither were physically ejected from the seats. When they asked why, the men in gray said, “Them’s Mr. Spate’s chairs.”

This new phenomenon was covered extensively and very contentiously, in the following day’s daily New York City newspapers. And the man on the hot seat was the president of the Park Commission – one George C. Clausen.

It seemed that a few days earlier, Clausen had been visited in his official Park Commission office by a man named Oscar F. Spate. Spate seemed amiable enough, and he offered Clausen a proposition Clausen saw no difficulty in accepting. It seemed that Spate said he wanted to place comfortable rocking chairs in the parks throughout New York City. And for the privilege of doing so, Spate offered the city the tidy sum of $500 a year.

“They do this in London and Paris,” Spate told Clausen. “And it would undoubtedly be good for New York City.”

Clausen saw no problem with Spate’s line of thinking, so he readily agreed; albeit without first consulting with the other member of the Park Commission. As a result, Clausen graced Spate with a five-year contract, allowing Spate to place his rocking chairs in all the New York City parks. With the ink still not dry on his contract, Spate immediately ordered 6,000 chairs, costing about $1.50 each. If Spate’s projections were correct, these chairs would earn him an estimated $250-$300 a day.

An associate of Spate, who asked a newspaper reporter for anonymity, said that Spate had already invested $30,000 in his new venture. The reporter did the math and he came up with the rocking chairs only costing Spate around $9,500. Pray tell, where did the other $20,500 go?

Spate’s spokesman said nothing to enlighten the reporter.

“Well, there’s always expenses in things like this, you know,” he told the scribe.

The New York City press knew a story when it hit them in the face, so they managed to track down Spate in his offices in the St. James Building, on Broadway and 26th Street, near Madison Square Park. When questioned by the reporters, Spate became indignant.

“I’ll put in as many chairs as they will allow,” Spate told the reporters. “The attendants who collect the charges are in my pay. They will wear gray uniforms, and each will look after about fifty chairs, from 10 a.m. to 10 p. m. A five-cent ticket entitles the holder to sit in either a five-cent, or a three-cent chair in any park at any time during that day. But the holder of a three-cent chair can only sit in a three-cent chair.”

Spate also told the reporters he was doing the city a favor, since charging for the chairs would keep the undesirables (read – the poor) out of the parks, thereby keeping the parks sparkling clean and free of loiterers who leave a mess in their wake.

The outrage from the New York City press and from philanthropists came swift. Randolph Guggenheimer, the president of the Municipal Council, said he “saw no good reason for allowing private parties to occupy park grounds and make money through a scheme like this.” The New York City Central Federated Union sent a statement to the press denouncing both Spate and Clausen for their “hideous actions.” The New York Tribune wrote in an editorial, “This is only another instance of the hopeless stupidity of the present Park Commission.” The New York Journal also wrote an editorial defending the “rights of poor people to sit in public park.” However, the New York Times saw no problem in what Spate was doing, as long as “the prices were regulated properly.”

Park Commissioner Clausen tried to defend his actions by telling the press that there were always plenty of free benches for people to sit on, except, of course, on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. The New York Tribune pointed out that those were the days with the biggest demand for seats in the parks.

As this issue became monumental, Spate became more resolute. He ordered more chairs be placed in Central Park, and also in Madison Square Park, which was across the street from his office. Some people paid to sit, and those that didn’t, were unceremoniously thrown out of the chairs by Spate’s thugs in gray suits.

Things quieted down for a few days, as few people protested paying for the seats. That all changed on Wednesday 26, 1901, when the city’s outside temperature rose above 90 degrees. By Saturday the temperature had risen to 94 degrees and nineteen people had perished in New York City due to the insufferable heat conditions. The temperature reached 97 degrees on Sunday, making it the hottest day on record with the Weather Bureau since June of 1871. On Sunday, fifteen more people died, and on Tuesday, with the temperature rising to 99 degrees, two hundred deaths were reported. There were 317 heat-related deaths on Wednesday, which made, in the time period from June 28th to July 4th, a total of 382 heat-related deaths in Manhattan alone, along with 521 hospitalizations for heat prostration. Altogether, in a seven-day period in the metropolitan district of New York City, which included Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond County, there were 797 deaths and 891 heat prostrations. Things were so bad, that on July 2nd, the city’s hospital ambulance drivers worked 24 hours straight with no relief.

With the city in a heat-related frenzy, harried people hurried to the city’s parks, which were now ordered by the Park Commission to stay open all night. When people arrived at the parks, they discovered that many of the free benches were no longer there, and the ones that were still present in the parks had been moved into the sun, making them too hot to sit on. However, Spate’s green chairs were sitting nicely in the shade, making them more attractive to the people fighting the stifling heat.

On Saturday July 6th, the situation reached a boiling point. A man sat in one of Spate’s chairs in Madison Square Park, and he absolutely refused to pay the five cents that Spate’s man Thomas Tulley demanded. Finally, Tully pulled the chair from out under the man and bedlam ensued. An angry crowd surrounded Tully and began shouting, “Lynch him! He’s Spate’s man!”

Tulley fought his way through the crowd and sped across the street to the Fifth Avenue Hotel, where he rushed upstairs and locked himself in a room. The crowd gathered in the hotel lobby for about 30 minutes, when policemen arrived and escorted Tully from the hotel to wherever he called home.

Later that day, with the heat still beating down on the park-goers, another one of Spate’s men evicted a boy who was sitting in one of Spate’s chairs in Madison Square Park and had refused to pay the necessary five cents. An angry crowd attacked Spate’s man, and when a policeman tried to intervene, he was dumped into the park’s fountain. Spate’s man fled the park in fear, and after he did, delighted people began taking turns sitting in Spate’s chairs (without paying of course). When nightfall arrived, several people carried Spate’s chairs home with them as trophies to grace their own living rooms.

The following day, Sunday, July 7th, the uneasiness moved to Central Park, where a huge crowd gathered in defiance of Spate and his green rocking chairs. While two of Spate’s men guarded Spate’s precious chairs, the crowd marched perilously close to the chairs chanting to the tune of “Sweet Annie Moore”:

We pay no more!

We pay no more!

No more we pay for park

Chairs any more!

Clausen made a break

One summer’s day.

And now he ain’t

Commissioner no more!

As the crowd converged on the chairs, people who had already paid for the right to sit, abandoned the chairs and fled from the park. One of Spate’s man quit his job on the spot, and he also fled the park. However, another one of Spate’s men continued to try to collect the chair fees. But he quit his job too after an angry old lady jabbed him in the back of the neck with a hairpin.

On Monday July 8th, Madison Square Park was the site of almost constant rioting. A dozen or so boys went from chair to chair, sitting for as long as they pleased, accompanied by an unruly crowd threatening to hang any of Spate’s men who tried to collect any fees. A brave and foolhardy Spate employee named Otto Berman slapped one boy in the face. The crowd surrounded Berman and his life was saved by six policemen, who bum-rushed Berman out of the park and into safety. Things had gotten so-out-of-control in Madison Square Park, police reenforcement were called in from the nearby West Thirtieth Street police station.

In the late afternoon, two men occupied two of Spate’s chairs and offered a thousand dollars to any of Spate’s men who could evict them from the chairs. Two of Spate’s men jumped in and tried to collect the reward, but they were promptly beaten to a pulp by the two men, who turned out to featherweight champion of the world Terry McGovern, and former fighter and then-boxing ring announcer Joe Humphreys. The police stormed the park and arrested six rioters, whom they led in cuffs to the Thirtieth Street police station. The policemen and the arrestees were followed by a crowd estimated at 200 people, who were marching in lock step and chanting:

Spate! Spate!

Clausen and Spate!

Spate! Spate!

Clausen and Spate!

On Tuesday, July 9th, the riots continued in both Madison Square Park and Central Park. However, the New York City police took a different tactic, when they were ordered by Police Commissioner Michael Murphy not to aid any of Spate’s men trying to collect fees, and not to arrest any of the rioters, unless court magistrates issued arrest warrants for the individual rioters. At this point, several of the magistrates told the press they would not issue any warrants, which gave the rioters the (wink-wink) go-ahead to do as they pleased with Spate’s chairs.

By this time, the president of the Park Commission George C. Clausen was figuratively tearing the hair from his own head. Having first said he could do nothing about the situation without the permission of the rest of the Park Commission, Clausen then reversed himself and said since he was the one who had confirmed Spate’s contract, he could also revoke Spate’s contract with New York City. Spate quickly answered by by getting a court injunction “restraining Mr. Clausen and the Park Commission from interfering with his valid contract with the City of New York.”

In an act of desperation, Spate ordered his men not to place his chairs on the ground, but to pile them in heaps in Madison Square Park and Central Park, and rent them only if they were paid for in advance. However, as soon as someone rented one of Spate’s chairs, members of the crowd grabbed the chair and broken it into little pieces.

Soon the crowd, tired of Spate and his chairs, began bombarding Spate’s men with rocks and stones, as Spate’s men hid behind and under the chairs piled up in heaps. Spate himself entered both parks to try to enforce his contract, but was forced to flee both times, as he was chased with rocks and stones flying past his head.

Finally, on July 11, a hero named Max Radt, the vice-president of the Jefferson State Bank, went into state Supreme Court and got an injunction forbidding Spate and the Park Commission from charging people to sit in Spate’s green rocking chairs. Spate, realizing he was a beaten man, promptly put all his chairs in storage. A few days later, Spate announced to the press he was “abandoning his project.”

Oscar F. Spate dropped out of sight and was never seen or heard from again in New York City.

A few weeks later, the Parks Commission issued a press release to the New York City newspapers announcing that the president of the Park Commission — George C. Clausen – had used his own personal money to purchase what was left of Spate’s green rocking chairs. These chairs were to be placed in parks throughout New York City. On each of these chairs was stenciled the lettering, “For the Exclusive Use of Woman and Children.”

And right above the declaration, in large letters was painted the word “FREE.”


Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About New York No-Fault

The “New York Comprehensive Automobile Insurance Act,” which most people call the “no-fault statute,” was enacted in 1973 and went into effect the following year. The purpose of the law was to limit the amount of personal injuries claims for car accidents, as many politicians had this agenda on their platforms.

The no-fault statute was groundbreaking in that it provided for immediate payment for medical care, lost earnings and other reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred as a result of injuries from a motor vehicle accident. The law provides that these expenses must be paid up to $50,000 per person. These payments are what’s known as “first party benefits” or “basic economic loss.” The reason it’s called no-fault, is that these payments are made regardless of fault. If you lose control of your car and drive into a tree, you still get these payments.

If your medical bills, lost earnings and/or out-of-pocket expenses total more than $50,000, you can still sue the party that caused your injuries for these additional amounts (as well as for pain and suffering.) If your injuries are “serious” and caused by the negligence of another, you can still bring an action. No-fault does not cover property damage, so you still need to sue for damages to your car unless you carry “collision” or “full coverage” for your vehicle.


“No-Fault benefits are provided for economic loss arising out of the use or operation of a motor vehicle (Insurance Law Section 5103). Section 5102 defines motor vehicle as “all vehicles driven upon a public highway accept motorcycles.” One might imagine that motorcycles were intentionally excluded due to the frequency of accidents, which would have rendered motorcycle insurance much too expensive.

You are covered by no-fault insurance and thus what the statute calls a “covered person,” if you are the policyholder, a driver or a passenger in the vehicle or a pedestrian that is injured by the operation of the vehicle. If you are not the policyholder and the car’s insurance is not in effect, you would be covered for the “first party” no-fault benefits under any car insurance policy in your household. For example, if your adult child in your home owned a car, it would cover you. If there is no “household car,” there is a state fund called the “Motor Vehicle Accident Indemnification Corporation” (MVAIC) that would provide “no-fault” benefits.

There are some exclusions you should be aware of. First off, there must be an accident. No-fault benefits will not be paid if an injury is caused by an intentional act. Most insurance policies disclaim intentional acts, no-fault and other types of claims. For example, you would not expect your homeowners insurance to pay for damage caused because you didn’t like your carpet anymore so you poured ink on it. Similarly, if somebody intentionally rams into your car, the insurance will not cover the loss. Luckily, things like this don’t happen very often!

You are also not covered if you are in “the course of your employment.” This applies, for example, if you are driving a taxi, you are working as an attendant in an ambulette or you are on a sales call. In most cases worker’s compensation will pay somewhat similar benefits which will be covered in another article.

If you are the driver, and you are driving under the influence, no-fault benefits will not be paid for you, but will be paid for passengers or pedestrians that you injured. Not surprisingly, if you are injured while committing a crime or when seeking to avoid law enforcement authorities, no benefits will be paid. Coverage will also not be afforded if you are operating a vehicle known to be stolen.

So, the plus side of “no-fault,” is that you are automatically entitled to payment for medical expenses and many other things if you are involved in a car accident, except for the exclusions discussed above. The downside is that in order to have a “tort” claim for negligence against the operator that caused your injuries, you must have what the law defines as a “serious injury.” I’ll explain this in more detail later in this article.


Insurance Law Section 5102 defines it as $50,000 per person for:

All necessary expenses incurred for medical and related services, therapy, certain non-medical treatment by an accepted religious method, and other professional health services so long as their occurrence was ascertainable within one year of the injury;

Loss of earnings and reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in obtaining services in lieu of those such persons would have performed for income, up to $2,000 per month for up to three years;

All other reasonable and necessary expenses incurred up to $25 per day for not more than one year following the accident.

The first paragraph outlines the types of medical treatment that are covered. Non-medical treatments can include acupuncture and some other holistic therapies, but I wouldn’t take a risk pushing for “religious” treatments that are not widely recognized. The benefits paid are on a “fee schedule,” and treating medical professionals cannot charge a higher fee, making it a challenge to find doctors willing to accept no-fault payments. Most chiropractors and physical therapists gladly accept it, but specialists such as orthopedic doctors, neurologists and plastic surgeons can be hard to find.

The second paragraph allows for payment for provable lost earnings due to an accident. If you are self-employed you can submit your tax returns to show a loss of income. You generally need to provide three years of tax returns – two prior years showing what you usually earn and the year the accident occurred showing that you made less. If you need to hire somebody to replace you temporarily, such as somebody to drive your taxi when you own the medallion, the amount you are paying for the replacement driver can be reimbursed. Obviously, if you are working “off the books,” you cannot make a claim for lost earnings benefits.

The third paragraph offers a small amount of money which is usually used for reimbursement for taxis to medical treatment and similar costs. You can also be reimbursed for household help if you are unable to care for your children or take care of your home (but only $25 a day.) There is an option to purchase an additional $25,000 after the $50,000 is exhausted, but very few people elect to buy this additional coverage. Your no-fault insurance benefits will, under some circumstances, even cover you for accidents that occur in other States.


A no-fault application must be submitted to the insurance company within thirty days of the accident. All claims must be submitted within 180 days of their date of service. Most insurance companies will pay benefits promptly. Issues can arise pertaining to the adequacy of the proof provided, which may delay payment. The insurance companies will sometimes claim that treatment is not medically necessary and deny payment, in which case the doctor can arbitrate this denial or sue the insurance company for payment of their bills. It is worthwhile to treat with medical professionals that are willing to do these arbitrations, rather than ending up responsible for payment, or with a lien on your case, should the insurance company refuse to pay. The insurance company also has a right to have you seen by doctors that they hire to determine whether your treatment is necessary. Eventually, as your injuries improve, the insurance company’s hired doctor will “deny” your medical treatment as no longer necessary, which can also be arbitrated or litigated by the medical professional treating you.


The “serious injury” threshold is defined in §5102(d). Damages for pain and suffering are recoverable only if the claimant sustains injuries which result in:

Death; or

Dismemberment; or

Fracture; or

Significant disfigurement; or

Loss of a fetus; or

Permanent loss of use of a body organ, member, function or system; or

Permanent consequential limitation of use of a body function or system; or

Significant limitation of use of a body function or system; or

Medically determined injury or impairment of a nonpermanent nature, which prevents the injured person from performing substantially all of the material, acts which constitute such person’s usual or customary activities for not less than 90 days during the 180 days immediately following the occurrence or injury.

The first two categories above are obvious. Fractures show up on x-rays and will always meet the serious injury threshold, no matter how minor they are. A hairline fracture of the left pinky toe will suffice, even if no treatment is required and there is no disability. Significant disfigurement is less clear cut. Usually the issue is cuts and abrasions on the face or other visible parts of the body that result in “scars” and whether or not the remaining marks are actually disfiguring. Case law explains that the scar must be so unattractive that the person is a target of “pity and scorn.” A mark that has to be “pointed out” will not meet the threshold.

With loss of a fetus, it must be proved that the miscarriage was actually caused by the accident. It would not be believable to claim that a miscarriage was caused by a minor impact, especially if the woman did not immediately seek medical treatment for any injuries and lost the baby a month later.

The “permanent loss” and “significant limitation” sections was intended to cover paralysis or other severe losses of use, but has grown to include much less severe impairments such as ligament tears and herniations of the neck and back. There must always be objective evidence, such as MRI’s and doctor’s report to back up these claims, subjective claims of pain are never enough to meet the serious injury threshold.

The threshold is met when an injured person loses more than 90 days of work due to their injuries. The time out from work does not have to be immediate and does not have to be consecutive. For example, a person could be out of work for a month after an accident, try going back to work, be out again, go back, have surgery and then be out again to recover. As long as it totals more than 90 days out of the first 180 days, it meets the serious injury threshold as long as a doctor certifies that you were indeed unable to work. It is not impossible, but much more difficult to qualify under this prong without a full-time paying job, but there are some circumstances where it might apply. For example, a homemaker with small children might be unable to provide care and need to hire childcare for her children, losing 90 out of 180 from her usual activities.


Aobout ETH

The second most valuable digital asset by market capitalization became Ethereum (ETH) in 2019, according to Binance Research, the new research will be 2019.

They said that last year ETH showed an “average average correlation” with other digital assets, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.69.

For the purposes of the study, activities with a correlation above 0.5 were assigned a strong positive relationship, while assets with a correlation of 0.5 were considered to have a strong negative relationship. The higher the number, the stronger the correlation.

cryptocurrency prices

Cardano (ADA) and EOS followed ETH, with correlation coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively. This is compared to a correlation coefficient of 0.31 against Cosmos (ATOM), which was the lowest correlation digital asset of the year, followed by a network link (LINK) and tezos (XTZ).

Overall, Binance concluded that all cryptocurrency systems continue to be “highly correlated” with what many cryptocurrency analysts have observed over the past few years. However, the correlation was “slightly reduced” in the fourth quarter of 2019, per report.


The Brooklyn Theater Fire of 1876

It began as a gala performance of Two Orphans at the Brooklyn Theater on Washington Street in Brooklyn, but thanks to ineffective and incompetent theater staff, it turned into the third heaviest fire ever to occur in either a theater building or a public assembly. , in the history of the United States of America.

The title roles were played by Maud Harrison and Kate Claxton, who was thought to be one of the best stage actresses of her time. Others in the cast included famous actors Claude Burrows, J.B. Studley, H.S. Murdoch and Mrs. Farron. All would play leading roles in the ensuing tragedy.

The Brooklyn Theater, which houses 1,600 people, was built in 1871. This is a brick, D-shaped building with a main entrance on Washington Street and a secondary entrance on Johnson Street, a smaller thoroughfare that runs perpendicular to Washington Street, 200 feet to the east. One block north was then the City Hall of Brooklyn, and one block south was Fulton Street, the main thoroughfare of Manhattan ferries that brought theaters from mainland Manhattan to the theater in Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Bridge was only built in 1886.

There were three seating areas in the Brooklyn Theater. The ground floor was called "Parquet and Parquet Circle". It contained 600 seats. Balcony seats on the second floor were called "circle dress" seats and accommodated 550 rounds. The third-floor gallery, called "family circle" seats, had 450 seats.

Top-tier family-friendly venues, with 50 cents a pop, were the least expensive venues in the house and had their own Washington Street box office. In addition, there was a set of 7-foot ladders designed with zigzags from right and left corner bends leading straight from the street out to the third floor. The theater is designed so that people in the family circle do not have access to the balcony below or to the main floor of the theater. This turned out to be their cancellation.

The second floor floor seats, costing a dollar, had two pillars to enter and exit the theater. One was a 10-foot staircase leading to and from the lobby. The other was a smaller set of emergency stairs leading to Flood Alley, a tiny strip of dirt behind the theater. The ground floor door to Flood Avenue was usually locked to prevent the cunning from entering the theater artfully.

The ground floor location consisted of three price ranges. At least expensive was the parquet room, which was unevenly located on the side of the stage, costing 75 cents. The seats of the parquet circles, which were in the middle of the audience, cost $ 1.50. There were also eight private boxes, four on each side of the stage, which were the most modern and expensive seats in the house. Each private box contained six seats. Boxing seats cost a whopping $ 10 apiece, a royal sum in the 1870s.

The lighting in the theater was provided by gas jets in the lobby and in the lobby. Several gas jets, covered with decorative globes, were placed on the floor of the orchestra. Border lights were placed in line along the aperture arch, which is the rectangular frame around the stage. These lights had tin on the side, facing the audience, and were covered with wire mesh. Above the lights were thin pieces of cloth that served as decoration. Some of these pieces of cloth hung precariously near the curb lights.

As a precautionary measure, buckets of water are usually kept off the stage in the event that the hanging nature ignites. And behind the scenes was a fiery hose that was connected to a two and a half inch water main.

On December 5, 1876, about a thousand people attended the Brooklyn Theater. About 400 people were seated in the seats of the upper family circle (exact figure never determined). 360 people sat on the seats in the circle with dresses, and 250 people sat on the parquet and parquet seats.

Edward B. Dickinson, who was sitting in the middle of the hardwood seats about five rows from the stage, thought the floor of the audience was no more than half. However, Charles Vine, who sat in the best places in the family circle, thought it was "one of the largest galleries" he had seen in the Brooklyn theater for quite some time.

Everything was fine at the Brooklyn Theater until the brief break between act four and act five. During this time the curtain was pulled down, hiding the stage and the orchestra playing during the intermission. People on the parquet floor heard loud noises behind the curtain. But this was not unusual.

Seconds before the curtain goes down, stage director J. W. Thorpe saw a small flame coming from the bottom of a drop landscape hanging near the central light at the border of the stage. Thorpe later said the flame was the size of his hand. Thorpe looked for buckets of water, but for some reason they were not where they were supposed to be. He thought of using the backdrop of the fire hose, but so much nature was on the way, he decided it was faster to extinguish the fire by beating him with long stage posts. Thorpe directed his carpenters, Hamilton Weaver and William Van Siken, to try to extinguish the fire by striking him with two large stage steps.

Around 11:20 pm, the fifth and final act began. When the curtain descended, Kate Claxton, playing a blind orphan girl, was lying on a pile of straw and looking up. B. Studley and H. S. Murdock had taken their places on the stage, in a box representing an old ship on the shore of the Seine. And Mary Ann Fahren and Claude Burroughs were waiting with wings for their intention to enter the stage. Miss Harrison was not on that stage, so she stood behind the scenes watching the production.

Murdoch had only made a few lines when he heard someone whisper Fire from behind the scenes. Murdoch looked up at the window arch and saw heavy black smoke and small flames flicker. Murdoch could see that the fire was spreading rapidly up to the dome ceiling of the theater. Murdoch stopped delivering his lines, but the audience had not yet noticed the fire and the smoke.

Murdoch heard Cloxton whisper, "Keep going. They'll turn it off. Keep going."

Murdoch finished his lines and Fahren and Burroughs entered the stage from the wings. Miss Claxton had just delivered her lines to Murdoch, saying, "I forbid you to touch me. I will beg no more, "when blazing parts of the ceiling fell on stage, igniting Cloxton's suit. Coldy hurried over and put out the flames of Claxton with his bare hands.

The orchestra exploded into a cheerful song for some reason, but did nothing to quell one's fears.

At this time, people in the theater realized that a fire was occurring and screams of terror began to spread on the walls of the theater. Farron and Murdoch stopped playing and stood on one side of the stage, urging people to leave quietly and quickly. Clackston and Studley did the same on the other side of the stage.

Clackston shouted at the crowd, now on their feet in an extremely excited state, "You can all go out if you can be silent. We are between you and the flames! Keep cool and come out safely."

But the maddened crowd had their own mind. People ran out of the tracks and panic ensued.

Coldy shouted to the crowd, "If I have the mind presence to stand here between you and the fire that is right behind me, you have to have the mind presence to come out quietly!"

Cloxton later told police: "We were almost surrounded by flames; it was crazy to be late longer. I took Mr. Murdoch's hand and said, "Come on, let's go." He pulled away from me in a dazed way and rushed into his dressing room, where the fire even then raged … To jump from the stage in the orchestra in the hope of coming out in front of the house would be just to add another to the frantic, struggling are masses of human beings that tread on each other to death like wild beasts. "

The hot wood began to hit the stage and the actors were forced to run out on the wings. Claxton suddenly remembered that there was a small corridor leading from her dressing room, basement and to the cash register. Clackston ran out of hindsight, meeting Harrison, and the two leading ladies escaped, though that passage in their dressing room toward the cashier was outside. Murdoch and Burroughs, on the other hand, ran back to their locker rooms to get warmer clothes to repel the cool December air in front of the theater. No man made it out of the theater alive.

At that time, a fire alarm was sent from the First Police Station, which was adjacent to the theater. A telegram was also sent to Mayor Schröder, informing him of the dire situation.

Some of the theater crew ran to the exits of Johnson Street and made it safely outside. But soon the fire spread and the access to these exits was cut off. All other exits were either in front of the theater, at the main entrance on Washington Street, or through the emergency doors of Flood Avenue.

As the crown was set in panic mode, Chief Thomas Rochford rushed to the back of the theater and opened the special exit doors on Flood Street. Due to the action of Rochford, the ground floor people were able to leave the theater in less than three minutes. So, in fact, the least crowded part of the theater had the fastest escape routes.

The open doors of Alley Stream caused rapid airflow to enter the theater, which increased the intensity of the fire inside.

The people on the second floor had two staircases to escape from. The seven-foot-wide main staircase that led them into the building led to a lobby near the Washington Street exit. The other was a narrower staircase that led to Flood's Alley. Most decided to rush to the main staircase because this was the most famous one. This provoked the largest lodge, because instead of a neat exit, people began to work alone in madness. People started to get tangled up with each other. Some were knocking on doors and others were falling down the stairs to the people below them, forcing the flow of people from the building to stop completely.

Sergeant John Kane of the neighboring First District fought the theater and, with the help of concierge Van Schieken, began to untangle the fallen people so that the crowd behind them could descend the stairs to safety. By all means, almost all the people on the second floor dress seats were able to get out of the theater alive. But the people sitting in the gallery on the third floor were doomed from the start, and they knew it.

People began to jump from the places of the family circle to the hall below. Some were hit so badly by the jump that they failed to exit the theater. Other people descended from a small window on the third floor to Flood Alley below. A man forced himself through a ventilation shaft, which deposited him on the roof of a nearby police station.

But most people in the gallery had no way of saving themselves. After several people were able to stumble down the stairs from which they had entered the building to ensure safety outside, the gallery posts collapsed and pushed hundreds of people down three floors.

Charles Straub was sitting in the gallery near the stairs. He was sitting with his friend Joseph Kremer. Afterwards Straub said: "We could hardly run down the stairs;

Although hundreds of people stumbled and fell over him, Straub somehow managed to make it down the stairs and out of the theater. According to him, about 25 people in the gallery understood him before him and about 12 people after him. The rest were trapped inside. He never saw his friend Kremer again.

Charles Vine was sitting in the gallery, but far from the only staircase. He was thinking of jumping out of one of the windows overlooking the Flood Alley, but it was a drop of sixty feet, and he would surely be killed by that jump. So Vine hurried to the front of the gallery and decided to jump from there to the circle of dresses below. The vine crashed badly into a chair and was killed for a moment. But Vine quickly regained consciousness and was able to move down the second-floor stairs to the exit door below. Fire Marshal Keedy later said that Vine was "the last person to leave the gallery alive."

Fifteen minutes after the fire started, the entire interior of the theater was on fire. And at 11:45, the east wall of the theater fell with a great murmur, burying over 300 men, women and children under tons of bricks and burning debris.

Thomas Nevins, chef engineer at the Brooklyn Fire Department, arrived at the theater at about 11:26 p.m. m. He immediately saw that there was no way to save the theater and that his job now was to limit the fire to this single structure. When additional fire extinguishing equipment arrived shortly before midnight, Nevins used this equipment to keep adjacent buildings free of sparks and burning debris.

By midnight, about 5,000 spectators had gathered on the streets in front of the theater; some are looking for signs of loved ones who went to the theater but did not return home. At one in the afternoon the wall of the Flood Alley collapsed and by 3am the fire started to burn. At that moment, Chief Nevins considered the fire under control. Early newspapers reported the fire that morning but said only a handful of people had died.

In the daylight break, Chief Nevins brought a contingent of firefighters into the building. Chef Nevins found that almost the entire theater had collapsed in the basement. As the firefighters made their way through the ruins, they made a terrible discovery. What appeared to be ordinary garbage was, in fact, a hazy mess of charred human bodies. Some of the bodies were intact and some lacked limbs. All were burned beyond recognition. The latter determined that almost all the dead were sitting in the gallery on the third floor when the fire started.

It took three days for the bodies to be removed. It was a long and tedious project because, given their charred state, the bodies would disintegrate as soon as they were moved.

Forensics, which was in its infancy at the time, cannot be precise. Initial newspaper reports say there were 275 to 400 casualties at the Brooklyn Fire Theater. The coroner's report later said there were 283 deaths, but that is only an educated guess. 103 unidentified bodies and body parts were buried in a common grave at Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn.

The death toll in the Brooklyn Theater fire of 1876 was exceeded only by the Iroquois Theater fire that occurred on December 30, 1903 in Chicago, Illinois, where at least 605 people died and the night-time fire Cocoanut Grove Club in Boston, November 28, 1942, killing 492 people.

The 1876 Brooklyn Fire Theater prompted New York to introduce precautionary measures that reduce the likelihood of such a recurrence. Changes to the building code prohibited the presence of paints, forests and building materials in the stage area. The code also required the use of a dense brick foam wall "extending from the basement to the roof to minimize the risk of a scene fire in the audience."

Other changes to the code stipulated that "the arches of the prosenium should be fitted with non-combustible fire curtains." Other openings in the foam wall require self-closing fire doors. Thermal activated spray systems were required for the flying space above the stage.

Beginning in the early 1900s, half an hour before the scheduled performance, each theater had to have a Theater Officer on duty. Before the play began, the task of the Theater Detail was "to test the fire alarm, to check the doors of the firewall and the fire curtain." During the performance, a theater detail employee "wanders around the theater making sure that the aisles, corridors and fire exits are clear and accessible to all patrons."

There have been conflicting stories about what happened to Kate Claxton after she escaped from a fire at the Brooklyn Theater. A newspaper said he was seen sitting quietly in the First Precinct for one hour after the fire. Another report said that three hours after the fire, a reporter from the New York city found Cloxton wandering around in a dizzy city hall in Manhattan. Her hands and face were swollen with bursting bubbles, and she couldn't remember taking the ferry from Brooklyn to Manhattan.

Less than a month later, after Cloxton recovered from her injuries, she traveled to St. Louis to appear in another play. As soon as she arrived in St. Louis, she settled into the Southern Hotel. Within hours, this hotel burst into flames, but Claxton and her traveling brother made a wonderful escape, seconds before the hotel collapsed.

This effectively ended Kate Clackston's theatrical career. Fearing that she was some kind of denim, other actors refused to appear with her on stage. And the theaters, fearing another fire, boycotted her performances.

Nine years after the Brooklyn theater fire, Kate Claxton shared her thoughts with the New York Times. Тя каза: „Мислехме, че действаме най-добре в продължаването на пиесата, както го направихме, с надеждата огънят да бъде изгасен без затруднение или публиката да напусне постепенно или тихо. Но резултатът доказа, че е не е правилният курс … Завесата трябваше да бъде спусната, докато пламъците не са изгаснали или ако е било невъзможно да се справи с тях, публиката е трябвало спокойно да бъде информирана за това неразположение от страна на някой член на компания или някакво злощастно събитие зад пейзажа наложи спиране на изпълнението и те трябваше да бъдат помолени да се разпръснат възможно най-тихо. Повдигането на завесата създава чернова, която разпалва пламъците в ярост. "

Задницата е 20/20, но по-късните наблюдения на Кейт Клакстън бяха абсолютно правилни. Огънят от театъра в Бруклин от 1876 г. можеше да нанесе минимални щети, ако само личността на театъра не беше блъснала, а беше действала съгласувано, методично и спокойно.