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Mafiots – Big Bill Dwyer – The King of Romanians

He started out as a simple docking worker, scaled up on a large scale and was known as the "King of the Rumble Runners". Big Bill Dwyer has made so much money, he has partnered with famous gangsters at several weak New York nightclubs. Dwyer also owned two professional hockey teams, including the Americans from New York, and owned the Brooklyn Dodgers football team. In the end, however, when Big Bill Dwyer died, he died from the spotlight and the plane broke.

William Vincent Dwyer was born in 1883 in the Hells Kitchen area of ​​western New York. Two bands, the Hudson Duster and the Gophers, operated Hell's Kitchen at the time, but Dwyer avoided joining both bands and instead took the dock job as stewardor for the International Union of Long Roads (ILU).

While working on the docks, Dwyer begins his own bookmaking operation. After the Wolsted Act, which banned the distribution of alcohol, came into force in 1919, with the money he made from a bookmaker, Dwyer diversified into the booming business. Dwyer bought a fleet of steel boats, each with a machine gun mounted, in case the crooks tried to hijack a shipment. Dwyer also purchased several large rum vessels that were needed to unload the illegal cord from any boat.

Dwyer travels to Canada, England and the Caribbean to establish relationships with those who sell him the alcohol he needs to smuggle in the United States. Dwyer then created a system through which his ships would meet ships that supplied him with liquor many miles out to sea. There, the drink was transferred to Dwyer's ships and then quickly transported to Dwyer's motor boats, which were closer to the New York coast.

The motor boats were unloaded on the docks, which were protected by ILU Local 791, of which Dwyer was a charter member. From the docks, the liquor has been moved to several warehouses in the New York area. When the time came, trucks loaded with illegal alcohol and protected by convoys of crew members were transporting drinks throughout the country: heavy shipments to Florida, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati and New Orleans.

Dwyer was able to smuggle large quantities of alcoholic beverages in New York because he knew a simple fact: you have to bribe the police and the Coast Guard if you want to succeed in a startup business. And Dwyer did so, handing over thousands of dollars to those who need to be cut.

Paying for New York cops was easy. The cops who hadn't given away graft money were far and few between. However, Dwyer was particularly adept at recruiting Coast Guard members to look the other way when his boats entered the waters of New York.

Dwyer's first contact was Olson's small-time Coast Guard officer. Through Olsen Dwyer, he met dozens of coast guards, "security guards" who he called, who might be willing to take bribes. Dwyer would bring these guards into the bright lights of New York, where he would feed them sumptuous meals, take them to Broadway shows, and even get them a small hotel room occupied by the lady of their choice, for whom Dwyer would also pay . After Guardie took a bribe from Dwyer, he was informed that he could earn hundreds and sometimes thousands of dollars more if he could appoint other Guardies to protect Dwyer's shipments.

Soon Dwyer made so much money through bootlegging, he was considered the largest distributor of illegal alcohol in the entire United States of America. Dwyer, however, had a huge problem that needed help solving it. Whenever one of his trucks left New York to distribute alcohol to other parts of the country, they were vulnerable to being captured by hundreds of abductors operating throughout the country. Dwyer knew how to stop this from happening, which he had to take in partners – members of the Italian mafia and the Jewish mafia. As he roared with millions of profits, Dwyer did not mind, and could certainly afford to share the wealth. The problem was that Dwyer was not considered a businessman and was not the gangster himself. Dwyer needed someone in the underworld who could make the contacts Dwyer needed to continue working without fear of being abducted.

Almost by accident, this man fell right into Dwyer's lap. In 1924, two of Dwyer's shipments were abducted in New York. Dwyer leaned against the cops on his payroll to find out who was responsible for the abductions. Soon Word returned to Dwyer that the perpetrator arrested for the abductions was none other than Owen Madden, himself an Irishman who grew up in Liverpool, England, before emigrating to New York as a teenager. Madden was nicknamed the "Murderer" and once ran the Gofer murder gang in Hell's kitchen.

Dwyer paid everyone who had to be paid to drop charges against Madden, with the order "Make me Ouni Madden. I want to talk to him. I have a business proposal that we need to discuss."

Madden received word who was his benefactor and that he was expected to meet Dwyer in return. The two men met at Dwyer's office in the Times Square Loew State Building. There is no record or transcript of this meeting, but T.J. English, in his masterpiece for Irish gangsters called Paddy Whacked, said the conversation between Madden and Dwyer might have gone something like this:

"You have a problem," Madden would say to Dwyer. "Gangsters are beating your trucks like ducks and what are you going to do about it?"

"That's why I called you here."

"You have to organize cherry archers and pickers, not to mention bulls (cops) and shelves (politicians)."

"I'm right. I need kidnappings to stop. I need a place to make my own brew right here in town. Protected by tigers and dill. And I need outlets – speakers, nightclubs, you do it call. "

“You need a lot, my friend.

"Are you with me?"

"Give me one reason why."

"I can make you rich."

"Pal, you and I are two peas in a pod."

And that was the start of the Irish Mafia in New York, which would then team up with Italian and Jewish mafia to control the startup business in the United States. The grouping of the three ethnic mafias was known as the Combination.

With millions of Dwyer, Madden oversees the creation of Phoenix Cereal Drink Company, located on 26th Street and 10th Avenue, right in the heart of Hell's Kitchen, where both Madden and Dwyer grew up. This red brick building, which consisted of the entire block, was originally the Clausen & Flanagan brewery, which was created for the production and sale of beer in the vicinity that no real beer drinker would let his lips pass. The beer made in Phoenix was called Madden's # 1.

With Dwyer basically the man behind the scenes, Madden became the architect who created and nourished their empire. Madden brought in a former taxi business owner named Larry Fay as the front man of several high-end establishments that were needed to sell Madden No. 1, plus all the scotch, rum, vodka, cognac and champagne the combine smuggled into town. One of those places was El Faye on 54 West Street.

The main attraction in El Fay was Texas Ginan, a cabaret singer / comedian cabaret singer who was later copied by May West. To entice Ginan to work in El Fay, Madden and Dwyer made Ginan a partner. Ginan was known for her wise men who roared between clutches or a piercing whistle as she sat in a high chair in the main room. Guinan's signature said, "Hello Suker," so she congratulated all of El Fay's well-healed clients.

When a singer or dancer finishes performing in El Fay, Ginan will exhort the crowd to "Give the little lady a great big hand!"

One day, a restraining agent who couldn't be bought by Madden or Dwyer attacked El Fay. He approached Ginan, put a hand on her shoulder, and told his fellow agent, "Give the little lady a big big handcuff."

Dwyer did what he did best, Ginan was released from prison, and El Fay soon jumped again, making everyone involved really rich.

Madden and Dwyer also partner with former bootlegger Sherman Billingsley at the extremely modern Stork Club on East 53rd Street. The two Irish gangsters spread their wings in northern Manhattan when they bought Club De Luxe from former heavyweight champion Jack Johnson. They appointed Big Frenchy De Mange as their operating partner and changed the name to Cotton Club. At Cotton Club De Mange set up a policy for accepting Whites Only, despite the fact that the waiters, dancers and title artists such as Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Nicholas Brothers were all black.

Still, the Cotton Club was thriving with big spending from the center, putting tons of money into the pockets of Dwyer and Madden.

In 1925, Dwyer was arrested for attempting to bribe members of the Coast Guard during a sting operation led by the Prohibition Bureau. Dwyer was sentenced to two years in prison, but was released for good behavior after 13 months. With Dwyer in the can, Frank Costello took over the refueling business with Dwyer.

While in jail, an angry Dwyer told one of his teammates. "I wish I had never seen a case of whiskey. I spent years in the daily fear of my life, I always expected to be arrested, I always deal with crooks and double croissants, and now look at me. My wife is heartbroken and I'm over worse than broken. "

As we shall see, this was not true.

When Dwyer took to the streets again, he broke free of the boom, leaving the operation of Costello and Madden's rum. To pass his time, Dwyer began investing in legitimate businesses, especially in sports teams.

In 1926, boxing promoter Tex Ricard joined Dwyer to buy the National Hockey League's Hamilton Tigers. Dwyer did this and he moved his team to New York's Madison Square Garden and renamed them New York Americans. As smart as Dwyer was in running the bootleg business, he was just as dumb in running a hockey team. Dwyer's strategy of winning pockets in his pockets was bursting with cash, generally overpaying all of his team. When the average hockey player makes between $ 1,500 and $ 2,000 a year, Dwyer gives Billy Birch a 3-year contract for $ 25,000. Shorty Green also got a huge raise when Dwyer awarded him a $ 5,000 a year contract.

Being an old crook in his heart, Dwyer took an active part in the leadership of his team, even going so far as to try and install the games. Dwyer paid the referees a goal to rule that his team scored a goal if the puck just touched the goal line instead of completely passing the goal, which is the rule.

Playing in 1927 at Madison Square Garden, the goalie Dwyer had in his pocket began to mock Ottawa goalie Alex Connell for some unknown reason. Connell punched his hockey stick in the nose of the referee's goal. Dwyer was outraged by the Ottawa goalkeeper's actions (you do not control one of Dwyer's employees), and Connell was told to leave town shortly after the game. A police detail led Connell to the station and protected it until the train left the city safely. After the train left the train, a man asked Connell if he was Ottawa goalkeeper Alex Connell. Connel fears for his life, told the stranger no. And as a result, he lives in goalkeeping other hockey games.

Bypassing the league's rule that one cannot own two hockey teams, in 1929, Dwyer, using former boxing champion Benny Leonard as his front man, purchased the NHL's Pirates. In 1930, Dwyer also inserted his dirty fingers into the newly formed National Football League, buying the Dayton Triangles for $ 2,500. Dwyer moved the team to Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and renamed them Brooklyn Dodgers.

After three years, Dwyer, once again overpaying all his players, began to lose so much money, he sold the Brooklyn Dodgers to two former New York Giants football players: Chris Cagle and John Sims for $ 25,000. Although he sold the team 10 times more than he paid, Dwyer estimated that he still lost $ 30,000 in the three years he owned the team.

In 1934, filled with sports teams in America (he still owned the Americans from New York, but they were bleeding money), Dwyer bought the famous tropical horse race track in Miami, Florida.

However, the roof fell to Dwyer when, in 1935, he was charged with a gambling charge. Dwyer won the case, but then his government did what they did to Al Capone: they hit him with tax evasion fees. These allegations remained and Dwyer was seized of all his assets except the Americans from New York and a house in Bel Harbor, Queens. With almost no money, Dwyer no longer had the money to keep the Americans of New York afloat.

In 1937, the National Hockey League temporarily took control of the Americans from New York. To show the NHL that he was financially solvent, Dwyer borrowed $ 20,000 from Red Dutton. However, instead of paying the salaries of his team, Dwyer decided to try to multiply his money by playing nonsense. That didn't go over well when Dwyer went out and lost a full twenty grand. Unable to pay his team and unable to raise more capital, the NHL steadily started Dwyer and took over the last control of the Americans in New York. Devastated and humiliated, Dwyer retired to his home in Bell's harbor.

On December 10, 1943, Big Bill Dwyer, the "King of the Romanians," died at the age of 63. According to Dwyer, he has no money, his only asset being the roof over his head.

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Brooklyn Bridge – triumphant icon

The Brooklyn Bridge is one of America's famous suspension bridges, it is also the oldest. Extending over the East River at 1,825 feet, it is able to connect Manhattan and Long Island.

By the time it was completed, it was thought to be the longest bridge in the world. What made the bridge unique was that it was also the first suspension bridge to be constructed using steel wires.

The term Brooklyn Bridge was recently used. It was formerly referred to as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and was later referred to as the Brooklyn Bridge in a letter to the editor of the Daily Eagle in Brooklyn in 1867. However, it was not until 1915 that the bridge was officially named by the city government as the Brooklyn bridge. In 1964, the bridge was recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and since then the view of the shiny looped bridge has become part of New York's unique silhouette.

Against the backdrop of many fans, the bridge was discovered in 1883. The structure bears the names of John, Washington and Emily Warren Robling as the designers who began work on the landmark in 1870. It was completed only thirteen years later and is attributed to the efforts of the people mentioned above. Emily Warling Robling in history books claims to be the driving force behind structure. Her father-in-law, John Robling, fell to his feet in 1872, leaving him paralyzed and later succumbing to his injuries. This left all the responsibility for its construction in the hands of Washington Robling and his wife.

The bridge that stands today is not just a structure but a tribute to the spirit of a woman. Emily Robling's husband also suffered internal injuries due to decompression sickness, under his direction and due to his education in higher mathematical and cable structures, she was able to stand in his stead and lead. It took eleven years of hard work and struggle to build this magnificent structure that remains to this day as a symbol of the legacy left by Robbles.

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The Great Rocking Chair Scandal

Nothing incites the general public more than someone trying to charge for something that was once free. Yet that’s exactly what entrepreneur Oscar F. Spate tried to do in the New York City parks in the blistering summer of 1901.

It all started in Central Park on June 22, 1901, when a group of people spotted rows of bright green rocking chairs along the park’s mall, near the casino. Usually in this same spot, stood rows of uncomfortable wooden hard benches, so it was a pleasure indeed for the park-goes to sit and rock and enjoy the wondrous summer day.

Suddenly, two broad-shouldered men approached the rocking-chair sitters. They wore identical gray suits and they carried black satchels with straps over their shoulders. The men in gray told the sitters that these were private chairs for rent, and that if they wanted to continue sitting they had to fork over five cents a day for the better seats, and three cents a day for seats that were not in as preferential a position in the park. Some people vacated their seats, but others paid. People who did neither were physically ejected from the seats. When they asked why, the men in gray said, “Them’s Mr. Spate’s chairs.”

This new phenomenon was covered extensively and very contentiously, in the following day’s daily New York City newspapers. And the man on the hot seat was the president of the Park Commission – one George C. Clausen.

It seemed that a few days earlier, Clausen had been visited in his official Park Commission office by a man named Oscar F. Spate. Spate seemed amiable enough, and he offered Clausen a proposition Clausen saw no difficulty in accepting. It seemed that Spate said he wanted to place comfortable rocking chairs in the parks throughout New York City. And for the privilege of doing so, Spate offered the city the tidy sum of $500 a year.

“They do this in London and Paris,” Spate told Clausen. “And it would undoubtedly be good for New York City.”

Clausen saw no problem with Spate’s line of thinking, so he readily agreed; albeit without first consulting with the other member of the Park Commission. As a result, Clausen graced Spate with a five-year contract, allowing Spate to place his rocking chairs in all the New York City parks. With the ink still not dry on his contract, Spate immediately ordered 6,000 chairs, costing about $1.50 each. If Spate’s projections were correct, these chairs would earn him an estimated $250-$300 a day.

An associate of Spate, who asked a newspaper reporter for anonymity, said that Spate had already invested $30,000 in his new venture. The reporter did the math and he came up with the rocking chairs only costing Spate around $9,500. Pray tell, where did the other $20,500 go?

Spate’s spokesman said nothing to enlighten the reporter.

“Well, there’s always expenses in things like this, you know,” he told the scribe.

The New York City press knew a story when it hit them in the face, so they managed to track down Spate in his offices in the St. James Building, on Broadway and 26th Street, near Madison Square Park. When questioned by the reporters, Spate became indignant.

“I’ll put in as many chairs as they will allow,” Spate told the reporters. “The attendants who collect the charges are in my pay. They will wear gray uniforms, and each will look after about fifty chairs, from 10 a.m. to 10 p. m. A five-cent ticket entitles the holder to sit in either a five-cent, or a three-cent chair in any park at any time during that day. But the holder of a three-cent chair can only sit in a three-cent chair.”

Spate also told the reporters he was doing the city a favor, since charging for the chairs would keep the undesirables (read – the poor) out of the parks, thereby keeping the parks sparkling clean and free of loiterers who leave a mess in their wake.

The outrage from the New York City press and from philanthropists came swift. Randolph Guggenheimer, the president of the Municipal Council, said he “saw no good reason for allowing private parties to occupy park grounds and make money through a scheme like this.” The New York City Central Federated Union sent a statement to the press denouncing both Spate and Clausen for their “hideous actions.” The New York Tribune wrote in an editorial, “This is only another instance of the hopeless stupidity of the present Park Commission.” The New York Journal also wrote an editorial defending the “rights of poor people to sit in public park.” However, the New York Times saw no problem in what Spate was doing, as long as “the prices were regulated properly.”

Park Commissioner Clausen tried to defend his actions by telling the press that there were always plenty of free benches for people to sit on, except, of course, on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. The New York Tribune pointed out that those were the days with the biggest demand for seats in the parks.

As this issue became monumental, Spate became more resolute. He ordered more chairs be placed in Central Park, and also in Madison Square Park, which was across the street from his office. Some people paid to sit, and those that didn’t, were unceremoniously thrown out of the chairs by Spate’s thugs in gray suits.

Things quieted down for a few days, as few people protested paying for the seats. That all changed on Wednesday 26, 1901, when the city’s outside temperature rose above 90 degrees. By Saturday the temperature had risen to 94 degrees and nineteen people had perished in New York City due to the insufferable heat conditions. The temperature reached 97 degrees on Sunday, making it the hottest day on record with the Weather Bureau since June of 1871. On Sunday, fifteen more people died, and on Tuesday, with the temperature rising to 99 degrees, two hundred deaths were reported. There were 317 heat-related deaths on Wednesday, which made, in the time period from June 28th to July 4th, a total of 382 heat-related deaths in Manhattan alone, along with 521 hospitalizations for heat prostration. Altogether, in a seven-day period in the metropolitan district of New York City, which included Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond County, there were 797 deaths and 891 heat prostrations. Things were so bad, that on July 2nd, the city’s hospital ambulance drivers worked 24 hours straight with no relief.

With the city in a heat-related frenzy, harried people hurried to the city’s parks, which were now ordered by the Park Commission to stay open all night. When people arrived at the parks, they discovered that many of the free benches were no longer there, and the ones that were still present in the parks had been moved into the sun, making them too hot to sit on. However, Spate’s green chairs were sitting nicely in the shade, making them more attractive to the people fighting the stifling heat.

On Saturday July 6th, the situation reached a boiling point. A man sat in one of Spate’s chairs in Madison Square Park, and he absolutely refused to pay the five cents that Spate’s man Thomas Tulley demanded. Finally, Tully pulled the chair from out under the man and bedlam ensued. An angry crowd surrounded Tully and began shouting, “Lynch him! He’s Spate’s man!”

Tulley fought his way through the crowd and sped across the street to the Fifth Avenue Hotel, where he rushed upstairs and locked himself in a room. The crowd gathered in the hotel lobby for about 30 minutes, when policemen arrived and escorted Tully from the hotel to wherever he called home.

Later that day, with the heat still beating down on the park-goers, another one of Spate’s men evicted a boy who was sitting in one of Spate’s chairs in Madison Square Park and had refused to pay the necessary five cents. An angry crowd attacked Spate’s man, and when a policeman tried to intervene, he was dumped into the park’s fountain. Spate’s man fled the park in fear, and after he did, delighted people began taking turns sitting in Spate’s chairs (without paying of course). When nightfall arrived, several people carried Spate’s chairs home with them as trophies to grace their own living rooms.

The following day, Sunday, July 7th, the uneasiness moved to Central Park, where a huge crowd gathered in defiance of Spate and his green rocking chairs. While two of Spate’s men guarded Spate’s precious chairs, the crowd marched perilously close to the chairs chanting to the tune of “Sweet Annie Moore”:

We pay no more!

We pay no more!

No more we pay for park

Chairs any more!

Clausen made a break

One summer’s day.

And now he ain’t

Commissioner no more!

As the crowd converged on the chairs, people who had already paid for the right to sit, abandoned the chairs and fled from the park. One of Spate’s man quit his job on the spot, and he also fled the park. However, another one of Spate’s men continued to try to collect the chair fees. But he quit his job too after an angry old lady jabbed him in the back of the neck with a hairpin.

On Monday July 8th, Madison Square Park was the site of almost constant rioting. A dozen or so boys went from chair to chair, sitting for as long as they pleased, accompanied by an unruly crowd threatening to hang any of Spate’s men who tried to collect any fees. A brave and foolhardy Spate employee named Otto Berman slapped one boy in the face. The crowd surrounded Berman and his life was saved by six policemen, who bum-rushed Berman out of the park and into safety. Things had gotten so-out-of-control in Madison Square Park, police reenforcement were called in from the nearby West Thirtieth Street police station.

In the late afternoon, two men occupied two of Spate’s chairs and offered a thousand dollars to any of Spate’s men who could evict them from the chairs. Two of Spate’s men jumped in and tried to collect the reward, but they were promptly beaten to a pulp by the two men, who turned out to featherweight champion of the world Terry McGovern, and former fighter and then-boxing ring announcer Joe Humphreys. The police stormed the park and arrested six rioters, whom they led in cuffs to the Thirtieth Street police station. The policemen and the arrestees were followed by a crowd estimated at 200 people, who were marching in lock step and chanting:

Spate! Spate!

Clausen and Spate!

Spate! Spate!

Clausen and Spate!

On Tuesday, July 9th, the riots continued in both Madison Square Park and Central Park. However, the New York City police took a different tactic, when they were ordered by Police Commissioner Michael Murphy not to aid any of Spate’s men trying to collect fees, and not to arrest any of the rioters, unless court magistrates issued arrest warrants for the individual rioters. At this point, several of the magistrates told the press they would not issue any warrants, which gave the rioters the (wink-wink) go-ahead to do as they pleased with Spate’s chairs.

By this time, the president of the Park Commission George C. Clausen was figuratively tearing the hair from his own head. Having first said he could do nothing about the situation without the permission of the rest of the Park Commission, Clausen then reversed himself and said since he was the one who had confirmed Spate’s contract, he could also revoke Spate’s contract with New York City. Spate quickly answered by by getting a court injunction “restraining Mr. Clausen and the Park Commission from interfering with his valid contract with the City of New York.”

In an act of desperation, Spate ordered his men not to place his chairs on the ground, but to pile them in heaps in Madison Square Park and Central Park, and rent them only if they were paid for in advance. However, as soon as someone rented one of Spate’s chairs, members of the crowd grabbed the chair and broken it into little pieces.

Soon the crowd, tired of Spate and his chairs, began bombarding Spate’s men with rocks and stones, as Spate’s men hid behind and under the chairs piled up in heaps. Spate himself entered both parks to try to enforce his contract, but was forced to flee both times, as he was chased with rocks and stones flying past his head.

Finally, on July 11, a hero named Max Radt, the vice-president of the Jefferson State Bank, went into state Supreme Court and got an injunction forbidding Spate and the Park Commission from charging people to sit in Spate’s green rocking chairs. Spate, realizing he was a beaten man, promptly put all his chairs in storage. A few days later, Spate announced to the press he was “abandoning his project.”

Oscar F. Spate dropped out of sight and was never seen or heard from again in New York City.

A few weeks later, the Parks Commission issued a press release to the New York City newspapers announcing that the president of the Park Commission — George C. Clausen – had used his own personal money to purchase what was left of Spate’s green rocking chairs. These chairs were to be placed in parks throughout New York City. On each of these chairs was stenciled the lettering, “For the Exclusive Use of Woman and Children.”

And right above the declaration, in large letters was painted the word “FREE.”

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Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About New York No-Fault

The “New York Comprehensive Automobile Insurance Act,” which most people call the “no-fault statute,” was enacted in 1973 and went into effect the following year. The purpose of the law was to limit the amount of personal injuries claims for car accidents, as many politicians had this agenda on their platforms.

The no-fault statute was groundbreaking in that it provided for immediate payment for medical care, lost earnings and other reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred as a result of injuries from a motor vehicle accident. The law provides that these expenses must be paid up to $50,000 per person. These payments are what’s known as “first party benefits” or “basic economic loss.” The reason it’s called no-fault, is that these payments are made regardless of fault. If you lose control of your car and drive into a tree, you still get these payments.

If your medical bills, lost earnings and/or out-of-pocket expenses total more than $50,000, you can still sue the party that caused your injuries for these additional amounts (as well as for pain and suffering.) If your injuries are “serious” and caused by the negligence of another, you can still bring an action. No-fault does not cover property damage, so you still need to sue for damages to your car unless you carry “collision” or “full coverage” for your vehicle.

WHO IS COVERED?

“No-Fault benefits are provided for economic loss arising out of the use or operation of a motor vehicle (Insurance Law Section 5103). Section 5102 defines motor vehicle as “all vehicles driven upon a public highway accept motorcycles.” One might imagine that motorcycles were intentionally excluded due to the frequency of accidents, which would have rendered motorcycle insurance much too expensive.

You are covered by no-fault insurance and thus what the statute calls a “covered person,” if you are the policyholder, a driver or a passenger in the vehicle or a pedestrian that is injured by the operation of the vehicle. If you are not the policyholder and the car’s insurance is not in effect, you would be covered for the “first party” no-fault benefits under any car insurance policy in your household. For example, if your adult child in your home owned a car, it would cover you. If there is no “household car,” there is a state fund called the “Motor Vehicle Accident Indemnification Corporation” (MVAIC) that would provide “no-fault” benefits.

There are some exclusions you should be aware of. First off, there must be an accident. No-fault benefits will not be paid if an injury is caused by an intentional act. Most insurance policies disclaim intentional acts, no-fault and other types of claims. For example, you would not expect your homeowners insurance to pay for damage caused because you didn’t like your carpet anymore so you poured ink on it. Similarly, if somebody intentionally rams into your car, the insurance will not cover the loss. Luckily, things like this don’t happen very often!

You are also not covered if you are in “the course of your employment.” This applies, for example, if you are driving a taxi, you are working as an attendant in an ambulette or you are on a sales call. In most cases worker’s compensation will pay somewhat similar benefits which will be covered in another article.

If you are the driver, and you are driving under the influence, no-fault benefits will not be paid for you, but will be paid for passengers or pedestrians that you injured. Not surprisingly, if you are injured while committing a crime or when seeking to avoid law enforcement authorities, no benefits will be paid. Coverage will also not be afforded if you are operating a vehicle known to be stolen.

So, the plus side of “no-fault,” is that you are automatically entitled to payment for medical expenses and many other things if you are involved in a car accident, except for the exclusions discussed above. The downside is that in order to have a “tort” claim for negligence against the operator that caused your injuries, you must have what the law defines as a “serious injury.” I’ll explain this in more detail later in this article.

WHAT DO YOU GET IF YOU’RE COVERED?

Insurance Law Section 5102 defines it as $50,000 per person for:

All necessary expenses incurred for medical and related services, therapy, certain non-medical treatment by an accepted religious method, and other professional health services so long as their occurrence was ascertainable within one year of the injury;

Loss of earnings and reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in obtaining services in lieu of those such persons would have performed for income, up to $2,000 per month for up to three years;

All other reasonable and necessary expenses incurred up to $25 per day for not more than one year following the accident.

The first paragraph outlines the types of medical treatment that are covered. Non-medical treatments can include acupuncture and some other holistic therapies, but I wouldn’t take a risk pushing for “religious” treatments that are not widely recognized. The benefits paid are on a “fee schedule,” and treating medical professionals cannot charge a higher fee, making it a challenge to find doctors willing to accept no-fault payments. Most chiropractors and physical therapists gladly accept it, but specialists such as orthopedic doctors, neurologists and plastic surgeons can be hard to find.

The second paragraph allows for payment for provable lost earnings due to an accident. If you are self-employed you can submit your tax returns to show a loss of income. You generally need to provide three years of tax returns – two prior years showing what you usually earn and the year the accident occurred showing that you made less. If you need to hire somebody to replace you temporarily, such as somebody to drive your taxi when you own the medallion, the amount you are paying for the replacement driver can be reimbursed. Obviously, if you are working “off the books,” you cannot make a claim for lost earnings benefits.

The third paragraph offers a small amount of money which is usually used for reimbursement for taxis to medical treatment and similar costs. You can also be reimbursed for household help if you are unable to care for your children or take care of your home (but only $25 a day.) There is an option to purchase an additional $25,000 after the $50,000 is exhausted, but very few people elect to buy this additional coverage. Your no-fault insurance benefits will, under some circumstances, even cover you for accidents that occur in other States.

TIMETABLE

A no-fault application must be submitted to the insurance company within thirty days of the accident. All claims must be submitted within 180 days of their date of service. Most insurance companies will pay benefits promptly. Issues can arise pertaining to the adequacy of the proof provided, which may delay payment. The insurance companies will sometimes claim that treatment is not medically necessary and deny payment, in which case the doctor can arbitrate this denial or sue the insurance company for payment of their bills. It is worthwhile to treat with medical professionals that are willing to do these arbitrations, rather than ending up responsible for payment, or with a lien on your case, should the insurance company refuse to pay. The insurance company also has a right to have you seen by doctors that they hire to determine whether your treatment is necessary. Eventually, as your injuries improve, the insurance company’s hired doctor will “deny” your medical treatment as no longer necessary, which can also be arbitrated or litigated by the medical professional treating you.

HOW DOES NEW YORK LAW DEFINE “SERIOUS INJURY?”

The “serious injury” threshold is defined in §5102(d). Damages for pain and suffering are recoverable only if the claimant sustains injuries which result in:

Death; or

Dismemberment; or

Fracture; or

Significant disfigurement; or

Loss of a fetus; or

Permanent loss of use of a body organ, member, function or system; or

Permanent consequential limitation of use of a body function or system; or

Significant limitation of use of a body function or system; or

Medically determined injury or impairment of a nonpermanent nature, which prevents the injured person from performing substantially all of the material, acts which constitute such person’s usual or customary activities for not less than 90 days during the 180 days immediately following the occurrence or injury.

The first two categories above are obvious. Fractures show up on x-rays and will always meet the serious injury threshold, no matter how minor they are. A hairline fracture of the left pinky toe will suffice, even if no treatment is required and there is no disability. Significant disfigurement is less clear cut. Usually the issue is cuts and abrasions on the face or other visible parts of the body that result in “scars” and whether or not the remaining marks are actually disfiguring. Case law explains that the scar must be so unattractive that the person is a target of “pity and scorn.” A mark that has to be “pointed out” will not meet the threshold.

With loss of a fetus, it must be proved that the miscarriage was actually caused by the accident. It would not be believable to claim that a miscarriage was caused by a minor impact, especially if the woman did not immediately seek medical treatment for any injuries and lost the baby a month later.

The “permanent loss” and “significant limitation” sections was intended to cover paralysis or other severe losses of use, but has grown to include much less severe impairments such as ligament tears and herniations of the neck and back. There must always be objective evidence, such as MRI’s and doctor’s report to back up these claims, subjective claims of pain are never enough to meet the serious injury threshold.

The threshold is met when an injured person loses more than 90 days of work due to their injuries. The time out from work does not have to be immediate and does not have to be consecutive. For example, a person could be out of work for a month after an accident, try going back to work, be out again, go back, have surgery and then be out again to recover. As long as it totals more than 90 days out of the first 180 days, it meets the serious injury threshold as long as a doctor certifies that you were indeed unable to work. It is not impossible, but much more difficult to qualify under this prong without a full-time paying job, but there are some circumstances where it might apply. For example, a homemaker with small children might be unable to provide care and need to hire childcare for her children, losing 90 out of 180 from her usual activities.

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Aobout ETH

The second most valuable digital asset by market capitalization became Ethereum (ETH) in 2019, according to Binance Research, the new research will be 2019.

They said that last year ETH showed an “average average correlation” with other digital assets, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.69.

For the purposes of the study, activities with a correlation above 0.5 were assigned a strong positive relationship, while assets with a correlation of 0.5 were considered to have a strong negative relationship. The higher the number, the stronger the correlation.

cryptocurrency prices

Cardano (ADA) and EOS followed ETH, with correlation coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively. This is compared to a correlation coefficient of 0.31 against Cosmos (ATOM), which was the lowest correlation digital asset of the year, followed by a network link (LINK) and tezos (XTZ).

Overall, Binance concluded that all cryptocurrency systems continue to be “highly correlated” with what many cryptocurrency analysts have observed over the past few years. However, the correlation was “slightly reduced” in the fourth quarter of 2019, per report.

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The Brooklyn Theater Fire of 1876

It began as a gala performance of Two Orphans at the Brooklyn Theater on Washington Street in Brooklyn, but thanks to ineffective and incompetent theater staff, it turned into the third heaviest fire ever to occur in either a theater building or a public assembly. , in the history of the United States of America.

The title roles were played by Maud Harrison and Kate Claxton, who was thought to be one of the best stage actresses of her time. Others in the cast included famous actors Claude Burrows, J.B. Studley, H.S. Murdoch and Mrs. Farron. All would play leading roles in the ensuing tragedy.

The Brooklyn Theater, which houses 1,600 people, was built in 1871. This is a brick, D-shaped building with a main entrance on Washington Street and a secondary entrance on Johnson Street, a smaller thoroughfare that runs perpendicular to Washington Street, 200 feet to the east. One block north was then the City Hall of Brooklyn, and one block south was Fulton Street, the main thoroughfare of Manhattan ferries that brought theaters from mainland Manhattan to the theater in Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Bridge was only built in 1886.

There were three seating areas in the Brooklyn Theater. The ground floor was called "Parquet and Parquet Circle". It contained 600 seats. Balcony seats on the second floor were called "circle dress" seats and accommodated 550 rounds. The third-floor gallery, called "family circle" seats, had 450 seats.

Top-tier family-friendly venues, with 50 cents a pop, were the least expensive venues in the house and had their own Washington Street box office. In addition, there was a set of 7-foot ladders designed with zigzags from right and left corner bends leading straight from the street out to the third floor. The theater is designed so that people in the family circle do not have access to the balcony below or to the main floor of the theater. This turned out to be their cancellation.

The second floor floor seats, costing a dollar, had two pillars to enter and exit the theater. One was a 10-foot staircase leading to and from the lobby. The other was a smaller set of emergency stairs leading to Flood Alley, a tiny strip of dirt behind the theater. The ground floor door to Flood Avenue was usually locked to prevent the cunning from entering the theater artfully.

The ground floor location consisted of three price ranges. At least expensive was the parquet room, which was unevenly located on the side of the stage, costing 75 cents. The seats of the parquet circles, which were in the middle of the audience, cost $ 1.50. There were also eight private boxes, four on each side of the stage, which were the most modern and expensive seats in the house. Each private box contained six seats. Boxing seats cost a whopping $ 10 apiece, a royal sum in the 1870s.

The lighting in the theater was provided by gas jets in the lobby and in the lobby. Several gas jets, covered with decorative globes, were placed on the floor of the orchestra. Border lights were placed in line along the aperture arch, which is the rectangular frame around the stage. These lights had tin on the side, facing the audience, and were covered with wire mesh. Above the lights were thin pieces of cloth that served as decoration. Some of these pieces of cloth hung precariously near the curb lights.

As a precautionary measure, buckets of water are usually kept off the stage in the event that the hanging nature ignites. And behind the scenes was a fiery hose that was connected to a two and a half inch water main.

On December 5, 1876, about a thousand people attended the Brooklyn Theater. About 400 people were seated in the seats of the upper family circle (exact figure never determined). 360 people sat on the seats in the circle with dresses, and 250 people sat on the parquet and parquet seats.

Edward B. Dickinson, who was sitting in the middle of the hardwood seats about five rows from the stage, thought the floor of the audience was no more than half. However, Charles Vine, who sat in the best places in the family circle, thought it was "one of the largest galleries" he had seen in the Brooklyn theater for quite some time.

Everything was fine at the Brooklyn Theater until the brief break between act four and act five. During this time the curtain was pulled down, hiding the stage and the orchestra playing during the intermission. People on the parquet floor heard loud noises behind the curtain. But this was not unusual.

Seconds before the curtain goes down, stage director J. W. Thorpe saw a small flame coming from the bottom of a drop landscape hanging near the central light at the border of the stage. Thorpe later said the flame was the size of his hand. Thorpe looked for buckets of water, but for some reason they were not where they were supposed to be. He thought of using the backdrop of the fire hose, but so much nature was on the way, he decided it was faster to extinguish the fire by beating him with long stage posts. Thorpe directed his carpenters, Hamilton Weaver and William Van Siken, to try to extinguish the fire by striking him with two large stage steps.

Around 11:20 pm, the fifth and final act began. When the curtain descended, Kate Claxton, playing a blind orphan girl, was lying on a pile of straw and looking up. B. Studley and H. S. Murdock had taken their places on the stage, in a box representing an old ship on the shore of the Seine. And Mary Ann Fahren and Claude Burroughs were waiting with wings for their intention to enter the stage. Miss Harrison was not on that stage, so she stood behind the scenes watching the production.

Murdoch had only made a few lines when he heard someone whisper Fire from behind the scenes. Murdoch looked up at the window arch and saw heavy black smoke and small flames flicker. Murdoch could see that the fire was spreading rapidly up to the dome ceiling of the theater. Murdoch stopped delivering his lines, but the audience had not yet noticed the fire and the smoke.

Murdoch heard Cloxton whisper, "Keep going. They'll turn it off. Keep going."

Murdoch finished his lines and Fahren and Burroughs entered the stage from the wings. Miss Claxton had just delivered her lines to Murdoch, saying, "I forbid you to touch me. I will beg no more, "when blazing parts of the ceiling fell on stage, igniting Cloxton's suit. Coldy hurried over and put out the flames of Claxton with his bare hands.

The orchestra exploded into a cheerful song for some reason, but did nothing to quell one's fears.

At this time, people in the theater realized that a fire was occurring and screams of terror began to spread on the walls of the theater. Farron and Murdoch stopped playing and stood on one side of the stage, urging people to leave quietly and quickly. Clackston and Studley did the same on the other side of the stage.

Clackston shouted at the crowd, now on their feet in an extremely excited state, "You can all go out if you can be silent. We are between you and the flames! Keep cool and come out safely."

But the maddened crowd had their own mind. People ran out of the tracks and panic ensued.

Coldy shouted to the crowd, "If I have the mind presence to stand here between you and the fire that is right behind me, you have to have the mind presence to come out quietly!"

Cloxton later told police: "We were almost surrounded by flames; it was crazy to be late longer. I took Mr. Murdoch's hand and said, "Come on, let's go." He pulled away from me in a dazed way and rushed into his dressing room, where the fire even then raged … To jump from the stage in the orchestra in the hope of coming out in front of the house would be just to add another to the frantic, struggling are masses of human beings that tread on each other to death like wild beasts. "

The hot wood began to hit the stage and the actors were forced to run out on the wings. Claxton suddenly remembered that there was a small corridor leading from her dressing room, basement and to the cash register. Clackston ran out of hindsight, meeting Harrison, and the two leading ladies escaped, though that passage in their dressing room toward the cashier was outside. Murdoch and Burroughs, on the other hand, ran back to their locker rooms to get warmer clothes to repel the cool December air in front of the theater. No man made it out of the theater alive.

At that time, a fire alarm was sent from the First Police Station, which was adjacent to the theater. A telegram was also sent to Mayor Schröder, informing him of the dire situation.

Some of the theater crew ran to the exits of Johnson Street and made it safely outside. But soon the fire spread and the access to these exits was cut off. All other exits were either in front of the theater, at the main entrance on Washington Street, or through the emergency doors of Flood Avenue.

As the crown was set in panic mode, Chief Thomas Rochford rushed to the back of the theater and opened the special exit doors on Flood Street. Due to the action of Rochford, the ground floor people were able to leave the theater in less than three minutes. So, in fact, the least crowded part of the theater had the fastest escape routes.

The open doors of Alley Stream caused rapid airflow to enter the theater, which increased the intensity of the fire inside.

The people on the second floor had two staircases to escape from. The seven-foot-wide main staircase that led them into the building led to a lobby near the Washington Street exit. The other was a narrower staircase that led to Flood's Alley. Most decided to rush to the main staircase because this was the most famous one. This provoked the largest lodge, because instead of a neat exit, people began to work alone in madness. People started to get tangled up with each other. Some were knocking on doors and others were falling down the stairs to the people below them, forcing the flow of people from the building to stop completely.

Sergeant John Kane of the neighboring First District fought the theater and, with the help of concierge Van Schieken, began to untangle the fallen people so that the crowd behind them could descend the stairs to safety. By all means, almost all the people on the second floor dress seats were able to get out of the theater alive. But the people sitting in the gallery on the third floor were doomed from the start, and they knew it.

People began to jump from the places of the family circle to the hall below. Some were hit so badly by the jump that they failed to exit the theater. Other people descended from a small window on the third floor to Flood Alley below. A man forced himself through a ventilation shaft, which deposited him on the roof of a nearby police station.

But most people in the gallery had no way of saving themselves. After several people were able to stumble down the stairs from which they had entered the building to ensure safety outside, the gallery posts collapsed and pushed hundreds of people down three floors.

Charles Straub was sitting in the gallery near the stairs. He was sitting with his friend Joseph Kremer. Afterwards Straub said: "We could hardly run down the stairs;

Although hundreds of people stumbled and fell over him, Straub somehow managed to make it down the stairs and out of the theater. According to him, about 25 people in the gallery understood him before him and about 12 people after him. The rest were trapped inside. He never saw his friend Kremer again.

Charles Vine was sitting in the gallery, but far from the only staircase. He was thinking of jumping out of one of the windows overlooking the Flood Alley, but it was a drop of sixty feet, and he would surely be killed by that jump. So Vine hurried to the front of the gallery and decided to jump from there to the circle of dresses below. The vine crashed badly into a chair and was killed for a moment. But Vine quickly regained consciousness and was able to move down the second-floor stairs to the exit door below. Fire Marshal Keedy later said that Vine was "the last person to leave the gallery alive."

Fifteen minutes after the fire started, the entire interior of the theater was on fire. And at 11:45, the east wall of the theater fell with a great murmur, burying over 300 men, women and children under tons of bricks and burning debris.

Thomas Nevins, chef engineer at the Brooklyn Fire Department, arrived at the theater at about 11:26 p.m. m. He immediately saw that there was no way to save the theater and that his job now was to limit the fire to this single structure. When additional fire extinguishing equipment arrived shortly before midnight, Nevins used this equipment to keep adjacent buildings free of sparks and burning debris.

By midnight, about 5,000 spectators had gathered on the streets in front of the theater; some are looking for signs of loved ones who went to the theater but did not return home. At one in the afternoon the wall of the Flood Alley collapsed and by 3am the fire started to burn. At that moment, Chief Nevins considered the fire under control. Early newspapers reported the fire that morning but said only a handful of people had died.

In the daylight break, Chief Nevins brought a contingent of firefighters into the building. Chef Nevins found that almost the entire theater had collapsed in the basement. As the firefighters made their way through the ruins, they made a terrible discovery. What appeared to be ordinary garbage was, in fact, a hazy mess of charred human bodies. Some of the bodies were intact and some lacked limbs. All were burned beyond recognition. The latter determined that almost all the dead were sitting in the gallery on the third floor when the fire started.

It took three days for the bodies to be removed. It was a long and tedious project because, given their charred state, the bodies would disintegrate as soon as they were moved.

Forensics, which was in its infancy at the time, cannot be precise. Initial newspaper reports say there were 275 to 400 casualties at the Brooklyn Fire Theater. The coroner's report later said there were 283 deaths, but that is only an educated guess. 103 unidentified bodies and body parts were buried in a common grave at Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn.

The death toll in the Brooklyn Theater fire of 1876 was exceeded only by the Iroquois Theater fire that occurred on December 30, 1903 in Chicago, Illinois, where at least 605 people died and the night-time fire Cocoanut Grove Club in Boston, November 28, 1942, killing 492 people.

The 1876 Brooklyn Fire Theater prompted New York to introduce precautionary measures that reduce the likelihood of such a recurrence. Changes to the building code prohibited the presence of paints, forests and building materials in the stage area. The code also required the use of a dense brick foam wall "extending from the basement to the roof to minimize the risk of a scene fire in the audience."

Other changes to the code stipulated that "the arches of the prosenium should be fitted with non-combustible fire curtains." Other openings in the foam wall require self-closing fire doors. Thermal activated spray systems were required for the flying space above the stage.

Beginning in the early 1900s, half an hour before the scheduled performance, each theater had to have a Theater Officer on duty. Before the play began, the task of the Theater Detail was "to test the fire alarm, to check the doors of the firewall and the fire curtain." During the performance, a theater detail employee "wanders around the theater making sure that the aisles, corridors and fire exits are clear and accessible to all patrons."

There have been conflicting stories about what happened to Kate Claxton after she escaped from a fire at the Brooklyn Theater. A newspaper said he was seen sitting quietly in the First Precinct for one hour after the fire. Another report said that three hours after the fire, a reporter from the New York city found Cloxton wandering around in a dizzy city hall in Manhattan. Her hands and face were swollen with bursting bubbles, and she couldn't remember taking the ferry from Brooklyn to Manhattan.

Less than a month later, after Cloxton recovered from her injuries, she traveled to St. Louis to appear in another play. As soon as she arrived in St. Louis, she settled into the Southern Hotel. Within hours, this hotel burst into flames, but Claxton and her traveling brother made a wonderful escape, seconds before the hotel collapsed.

This effectively ended Kate Clackston's theatrical career. Fearing that she was some kind of denim, other actors refused to appear with her on stage. And the theaters, fearing another fire, boycotted her performances.

Nine years after the Brooklyn theater fire, Kate Claxton shared her thoughts with the New York Times. Тя каза: „Мислехме, че действаме най-добре в продължаването на пиесата, както го направихме, с надеждата огънят да бъде изгасен без затруднение или публиката да напусне постепенно или тихо. Но резултатът доказа, че е не е правилният курс … Завесата трябваше да бъде спусната, докато пламъците не са изгаснали или ако е било невъзможно да се справи с тях, публиката е трябвало спокойно да бъде информирана за това неразположение от страна на някой член на компания или някакво злощастно събитие зад пейзажа наложи спиране на изпълнението и те трябваше да бъдат помолени да се разпръснат възможно най-тихо. Повдигането на завесата създава чернова, която разпалва пламъците в ярост. "

Задницата е 20/20, но по-късните наблюдения на Кейт Клакстън бяха абсолютно правилни. Огънят от театъра в Бруклин от 1876 г. можеше да нанесе минимални щети, ако само личността на театъра не беше блъснала, а беше действала съгласувано, методично и спокойно.

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Book a New Year's Eve you can bet on

You may have brought New Year's Eve to exciting cities like New York, Paris, Rio, or Monte Carlo, but in Las Vegas you can taste all of these cities and more. Las Vegas is known for being a haven for tourists. Las Vegas is an event to celebrate any time of the year. At any time of the imagination, this desert town is your sure bet on New Year's Eve.

If you've never been or haven't recently visited, a new trend in Las Vegas is the theme resort. New York New York, Rio, Monte Carlo, Paris are just some of the themed resorts. 2.5 new jobs are being created for each new hotel room built in Las Vegas. This may be why Las Vegas has been selected as a city to increase employment in the United States for nearly two decades.

New York's New York resort is Manhattan transferred a capsule from its true location. The look begins with an exterior designed to resemble office buildings in New York. When architectural experts gathered a few years ago in Las Vegas, they also gave it a thumbs up.

Overlooking the main drag, most commonly known as the Lap Vegas Strip, stands a 150-foot-tall replica of the Statue of Liberty. The Brooklyn Bridge, 300 feet long, is nearby. In New York, visitors to New York come to Central Park, Greenwich Village and Times Square, all on a smaller scale.

Compared to the palace, Monte Carlo rests in the middle of Las Vegas Blvd. Tape. Featuring Italian marble floors, intricate arches, fountains and massive chandeliers, Monte Carlo offers the atmosphere and feeling of being carried to the true Monte Carlo of Monaco.

To the west of the Las Vegas strip stands the Rio Hotel Casino. At night, Rio comes to life with excitement. Expanded through the casino are many restaurants that cover seafood and steak in a New Orleans atmosphere. Buffets on the French market offer crabs, among other Louisiana Bay specialties.

The stratospheric tower is a must see on the strip in Las Vegas. At 1,149 feet, this is the tallest building west of the Mississippi River. It stands taller than the Eiffel Tower, which is only 985 feet tall and only slightly shorter than the Empire State Building, which stands 1250 feet tall.

The turret tower offers both indoor and outdoor observation platforms. Day or night, this is the best place to explore the city, and the panorama of the Las Vegas Valley below is inspiring. Breathtaking views in each direction include flashes of several different states.

In the middle of downtown lies the unique Fremont Street Experience, a slight extravagance that does not fit the description. Built over a five-block mall, the Fremont Street Experience is a shade with more than a million lights. Introduced as a show, which is kind of special, the show's programs are free, illuminated every hour until midnight.

On New Year's Eve, you can let the feeling of fun wrap around you. The Fremont Street Experience Mall is filled with a loud joyful crowd enjoying a festive celebration. This is a setting that is dazzling and has nothing comparable anywhere in the world.

Is there a marriage in your horizon? Over 150,000 marriage licenses are issued each year in Las Vegas, with the two most popular wedding dates being New Year's and Valentine's Day, and almost every hotel has a wedding chapel. The ceremony can go from very simple to lavish, depending on your tastes and budget.

Undoubtedly, Blue City has evolved from a desert stop to a boom town. This is an exciting Mecca on the last night of the year and probably the hottest ticket in the country. Hotels book a year early, so it's not too early to book your stay in 2012. The glamor, entertainment and crowds are the epitome of adult coupons.

When was the last time you found a party that was waiting for you? If you're looking for a great place to make the most of New Year's Eve, Las Vegas might just be the place. Throughout the year, the city's dazzling lights and street scenes come to life after dark. On New Year's Eve, anyone with a coupon spirit will find the latest New Year's experience.

The end

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Mafiots in America – Abe "Kid Twist" Reles – Canary that can sing but can't fly

He was a vicious killer from the time he was 18, but Abe "Kid Twist" Reles, was no one's man. When he came down to push and hit, he was nothing but a yellow-belly who lied to his best friends to save his own skin.

Abraham Rails was born in the Brownsville area of ​​Brooklyn, New York on May 10, 1906. His father is an Austrian Jew who immigrated to America to seek a better life. But after years of working as a small-town worker in the clothing trade, he ends up selling knitwear on the streets of Brooklyn from a mobile booth.

Quickly realizing that his father's life was not for him, Reles, five feet two inches, dropped out of school after eighth grade. He soon worked as a goffer for the powerful brothers Shapiro, Mayer, Irving and Willie, who operated missiles in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn. Reles was reduced to completing orders and doing light work for Shapiros, sometimes for just five bucks a pop. One of those orders consisted of observing one of Shapiro's many slot machines, and for that reason, Thales threw a bullet in his back, which resulted in nothing more than flesh but a major explosion in Reles' ego. It was at this time that Reles took the nickname "Kid Twist" in honor of a former New York Jewish mob named Max "Kid Twist" Iver, who, equally oddly, was also killed on Connie Island.

Annoyed and unwilling to continue to get the short end of the Shapiros stick, Reles created his own little band consisting of childhood friend Bugsy Goldstein and the Italian duo of Happy Maione and Dasher Abbendado. Soon, the sadistic killer Harry Pittsburgh Phil Strauss joined the crew, and Reles announced, at the ripe old age of twenty, that he and his boys would be going to take Brownsville and all his missiles away from Shapiros. Relays called his motley crew of assassins "Brooklyn Inc."

"Why Should We Take the Left?" asked Rails Goldstein. "We have to cut a piece. Hell with those guys."

When word came back to Shapiros, which Reles had planned, Mayer, the chief of the clan, was furious. "Brownsville belongs to us," said Mayer Shapiro. "Nobody moves here."

Meyer Shapiro fired the first burst of war in control of Brownsville, grabbing Rails' girlfriend from the street and brutally beating and raping her. Now it was Reles's own face, and he and Goldstein toured the streets of Brownsville, trying to kill all three Shapiros, but mostly Mayer because of the resentment that had defiled Reles' girlfriend. Throughout the year, Reles and Goldstein shot Meyer Shapiro nineteen times, but wounded him only once. Then one evening, upon learning that Meyer Shapiro and his two brothers were ambushed in front of their Blake Avenue apartment building, Reles was upset to find that only Irving had bothered to show. As Irving Shapiro entered his fifth-floor apartment, Reles and Goldstein discharged their weapons, first striking Irving twice in the face, then sixteen more times in the back.

A few days later, Relesh and his boys grabbed a corner from Meyer Shapiro on the streets of Brooklyn. A single bullet in the ear of Mayer Sharpiro, shot by Reles, took Shapiro out as chief of the Brownsville missiles. It took Reles three years to finally eliminate Willie Shapiro, who threatened to kill Reles and his friends the entire time. After taking Willie Shapiro to a bar, he was taken to a basement in Brooklyn, beaten mercilessly, and then buried in a shallow sand dune at Canarsie Flats. Willie Shapiro's body was soon found and his medical examination autopsied and found sand in his lungs, meaning he was buried alive.

The triumph of Reles and his boys over the Shapiro brothers caught the eye of Louis Lepke Bookletter, and soon Brooklyn Inc. became a corporation of Murder Incorporated. Lepke was said to have several dozen killers on his paycheck, and in the decade of the 1930s, police estimated that Murder Incorporated was responsible for five hundred strikes across the country.

Yet nothing good lasts forever. On February 2, 1940, Reles, Goldstein, and Anthony Duke Mafethor were arrested for the 1934 murder of a small hood named Red Alpert. Maffetore was the first to file evidence against his crew, but the largest rat jewel for New York District Attorney William O Dwyer was Reles, who was the highest ranking member of Murder Incorporated at Lepke. During the trial of Lepke, which also included Mandy Weiss and Luis Capone as defendants, Reles, who had a photographic memory, gave intimate details of more than 200 murders involving the defendants. All three of Reles's former friends were subsequently convicted and fried in Singh Singh's electric chair.

Yet, the government did not end with Reles' cry. He was wanted as a key witness in the upcoming large-scale trial of the assassinations of Albert Anastasia and Buggy Seagal. While Reles waited a few more trips to court, Dwyer hid Reles at the Crescent Hotel, located on the sandy beaches of Coney Island. Relays was under constant police surveillance, with no fewer than six police officers guarding him at a time, even while he was sleeping.

Yet in the early morning hours of November 12, 1941, Reles fell to his death from a window on the sixth floor of the hotel. He was found relaxed on his back with a suit jacket, but his white shirt was unbuttoned and revealed a fat belly. Several leaves were found tied together and although Reles' body was found twenty feet from the base of the hotel, the official cause of death was cited as "dying from falling while trying to escape". Following the death of Rails, Dwer announced that his future affairs were going out of the window with Rules.

Years later, Italian crime boss Lucky Luciano said $ 50,000 was paid by Frank Costello to be distributed to the New York Police Department to see if the person who can "sing like a canary" , can fly as one too.

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New York Travel Tips for Older Tourists

With its many historic sites, buildings, museums and vibrant culture, New York City attracts millions of tourists from around the world. However, it is not necessary for young people and families to be able to enjoy a vacation in a thriving city. There are many options for making the tour enjoyable as well as accessible for older visitors. Older citizens visiting the city, alone or with family members, can enjoy the tour if they plan carefully. The pleasant public transportation system and affordable accommodation will come as a pleasant surprise to them.

Transportation in New York for seniors

Fortunately, seniors visiting different parts of New York do not have to deal with transportation problems much. If you are over 65, you may benefit from reduced city bus and metro fees. Most city buses have wheelchair lifts with the possibility of lowering the front entrance for easier access. Older people can also sit behind the driver.

Planning for a sightseeing trip in New York is important for older visitors

Tourist attractions in and around New York are enough, but older visitors should plan carefully. Attractions that require a lot of walking or climbing stairs can make them feel tired soon. Keep in mind that places like Central Park and Times Square can be best explored by walking.

Senior visitors who still do not like to walk, want to cover the most iconic landmarks and places in the city, have two options. Traveling by bus will cover a lot of spots, or a boat trip around the Manhattan area should be sufficient for them. The Manhattan Island cruise takes over 2 hours and covers the Statue of Liberty, Roosevelt Island and Ellis Island. Using the bus network is economical as it is. It is better to check the bus routes online beforehand. Gray Line bus tours are quite popular and the routes cover the Statue of Liberty and other best sightseeing options in the city.

Affordable tourist attractions for seniors in New York

A number of tourist attractions in New York City are accessible to adult visitors. It is a good idea to visit the museums during the day as the elderly receive free admission. Some attractions have special classes such as the Museum of Modern Art and Brooklyn Botanical Gardens. The Bronx Zoo has the option of paying what you can afford for admission.

Older people who plan to explore the city in a week must choose the New York City Pass. Helps to save money and time. It includes major discounts on attractions such as the Empire State Building, the American Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The pass also entitles buyers to choose the Hayden Planetarium exhibit and the Line Sightseeing Cruise. Older visitors with grandchildren can get better discounts on the companion.

Getting closer to nature

For some elderly visitors, New York's grandiose buildings may seem less desirable than natural landmarks such as parks and a zoo. They must head to various parks in the city. The historic city of Richmond, the Central Park Zoo and the Queens Farm Museum are ideal for such visitors.

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New York landmarks

New York City is one of the largest tourist destinations in the world; a city steeped in history and culture and boasting some of the greatest architectural landmarks in the world, there is no shortage of things to do and see while you visit the Big Apple.

In fact, if you are planning to visit, you need to plan your itinerary quite carefully, since the likelihood of being able to get involved in visiting each of New York's largest attractions is low.

While legendary attractions such as the Statue of Liberty, the Empire State Building, Central Park and Times Square are a definite must-have, there is much more to New York Travel. He has works of art at the Whitney Museum of American Art, MoMA and the Metropolitan Museum of Art; on spectacular architecture covered by the Brooklyn Bridge and the Flatiron and Chrysler buildings and, of course, fantastic shopping outlets!

With so much to do and see, many visitors choose to tour New York or two during their stay. There is a a great variety of New York City tours available so that the tours you decide on will depend entirely on your preferences.

Sightseeing in New York

Bird's eye view

If you're looking for something out of the ordinary when it comes to sightseeing in New York, Big Apple air tour must. Viewing this incredible city by helicopter is really exceptional as it gives you the perspective that you won't get from a New York land tour. There are various New York aerial tours ranging from extensive New York tourist tours to Statue of Liberty tours and romantic flights over Manhattan.

City cruises

New York cruise tours allow travelers to view the sights and sounds of the Big Apple from a distance. There are various types of cruise tours in New York; there are daily cruises around the port of Manhattan, glamorous dinner and dancing cruises, Cruises and Cruises of the Statue of Liberty in which you look shining holiday lightsCruises are a great option to consider when considering which sightseeing tour in New York to do during your vacation at the Big Apple.

Shop until you get faint

New York and shopping are synonymous concepts – there is no better way to visit the most eclectic range of commercial havens than with shopping in New York. Visit Clothing area; treat your eyes to gorgeous window displays along Madison Avenue, see the splendor of Sax Fifth Avenue or buy trinkets from street vendors on Canal Street. Sightseeing in New York of this variety will give you great an introduction to luxury shopping in New York.

Step by Step

Walking tours in New York are extremely popular as you can experience many of the attractions not even visible on the bus tours. The New York City guides will show you places where historical events have taken place, share the stories of generations walking along the paths before you, and We present you some of the hidden gems in the cityThe luxury chocolate walk is a must-have for any chocolate lover visiting New York. Chocolate delicacies from the street cafes and bistro on the east side will leave you with a new appreciation for this heavenly delight.

Beautiful bus routes

One of the most popular deals when it comes to sightseeing tours in New York, bus tours allow visitors to experience quite a bit as they cover more land than hiking tours. There are several types of bus tours in New York and the tour you choose will depend on your main interests. There are tours that focus solely on the main attractions, historical tours, movie and TV tours and tours that expose travelers to a little of everything.

One of the most popular bus tours in New York City Sex Tour which presents 40 locations on the hit television series. Sit down at Carrie's apartment, visit the show's local bar, and head to the shoe store where Carrie blew up most of her pay checks.

No matter what type of tour you choose, you will be fascinated by the sights, attractions and sights and sounds that are unique to New York City,